We investigate the austenite stability in nanocrystalline Fe-7%Mn-X%Mo (X = 0, 1, and 2) alloys fabricated by spark plasma sintering. Mo is known as a ferrite stabilizing element, whereas Mn is an austenite stabilizing element, and many studies have focused on the effect of Mn addition on austenite stability. Herein, the volume fraction of austenite in nanocrystalline Fe-7%Mn alloys with different Mo contents is measured using X-ray diffraction. Using a disk compressive test, austenite in Fe–Mn–Mo alloys is confirmed to transform into strain-induced martensite during plastic deformation by a disk d. The variation in austenite stability in response to the addition of Mo is quantitatively evaluated by comparing the k-parameters of the kinetic equation for the strain-induced martensite transformation.
Subunit vaccines are being developed as a potential therapy for preventing microbial pathogen infection. In this study, the immunogenicity of recombinant Brucella (B.) abortus Fe/Mn superoxide dismutase (rFe/Mn SOD) protein as a subunit vaccine against B. abortus was investigated in BALB/c mice model. Brucella Fe/Mn SOD gene was cloned into a pcold-TF DNA vector. The bacterial recombinant protein was expressed using the Escherichia coli DH5α strain with a size of 82.50 kDa. The western blotting assay showed that rFe/Mn SOD reacted with Brucella-positive serum, indicating the potential immunoreactivity of this recombinant protein. After the second and third vaccinations, the peripheral CD4+ T cell population was increased significantly in the rFe/Mn SOD-immunized mice group compared to the PBS control group. Moreover, immunization of this recombinant protein increased the CD4+ T cell population from the first vaccination to the third vaccination. Meanwhile, the CD8+ T cells were slightly enhanced after the second vaccination compared to the first vaccination and compared to control groups. Fourteen days after the bacterial infection, the splenomegaly and the number of bacteria in the spleen were evaluated. The result showed that both rFe/Mn SOD and positive control RB51 decreased the bacterial replication in the spleen and the splenomegaly compared to control groups. Altogether, these results suggested that rFe/Mn SOD could induce host immunity against B. abortus infection.
A typical trade-off relationship exists between strength and elongation in face-centered cubic metals. Studies have recently been conducted to enhance strength without ductility reduction through surface-treatment-based ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM), which creates a gradient microstructure in which grains become smaller from the inside to the surface. The transformation-induced plasticity effect in Fe-Mn alloys results in excellent strength and ductility due to their high work-hardening rate. This rate is achieved through strain-induced martensitic transformation when an alloy is plastically deformed. In this study, Fe-6%Mn powders with different sizes were prepared by high-energy ball milling and sintered through spark plasma sintering to produce Fe-6%Mn samples. A gradient microstructure was obtained by stacking the different-sized powders to achieve similar effects as those derived from UNSM. A compressive test was performed to investigate the mechanical properties, including the yielding behavior. The deformed microstructure was observed through electron backscatter diffraction to determine the effects of gradient plastic deformation.
Lightweight steel is a crucial material that is being actively studied because of increased carbon emissions, tightening regulations regarding fuel efficiency, and the emergence of UAM, all of which have been recently labeled as global issues. Hence, new strategies concerning the thickness and size reduction of steel are required. In this study, we manufacture lightweight steel of the Fe-Mn-Al-C system, which has been recently studied using the DED process. By using 2.8 wt.% low-Mn lightweight steel, we attempt to solve the challenge of joining steel parts with a large amount of Mn. Among the various process variables, the laser scan power is set at 600 and 800W, and the laser scan speed is fixed at 16.67 mm/s before the experiments. Several pores and cracks are observed under both conditions, and negligibly small pores of approximately 0.5 μm are observed.
The impact properties of two austenitic Fe-23Mn-0.4C steels with different Al contents for cryogenic applications are investigated in this study. The 4Al steel consists mostly of austenite single-phase microstructure, while the 5Al steel exhibits a two-phase microstructure of austenite and delta-ferrite with coarse and elongated grains. Charpy impact test results reveal that the 5Al steel with duplex phases of austenite and delta-ferrite exhibits a ductile-to-brittle transition behavior, while the 4Al steel with only single-phase austenite has higher absorbed energy over 100 J at -196 oC. The SEM fractographs of Charpy impact specimens show that the 4Al steel has a ductile dimple fracture regardless of test temperature, whereas the 5Al steel fractured at -100 oC and -196 oC exhibits a mixed fracture mode of both ductile and brittle fractures. Additionally, quasi-cleavage fracture caused by crack propagation of delta-ferrite phase is found in some regions of the brittle fracture surface of the 5Al steel. Based on these results, the delta-ferrite phase hardly has a significant effect on absorbed energy at room-temperature, but it significantly deteriorates low-temperature toughness by acting as the main site of the propagation of brittle cracks at cryogenic-temperatures.
A high NIR-reflective black pigment is developed by Mn doping of Fe2O3. The pigment powders are prepared by spray pyrolysis, and the effect of the Mn concentration on the blackness and optical properties is investigated. Mn doping into the crystal lattice of -Fe2O3 is found to effectively change the powder color from red to black, lowering the NIR reflectance compared to that of pure Fe2O3. The pigment doped with 10% Mn, i.e., Fe1.8Mn0.2O3, exhibits a black color with an optical bandgap of 1.3 eV and a Chroma value of 1.14. The NIR reflectance of the prepared Fe1.8Mn0.2O3 black pigment is 2.2 times higher than that of commercially available carbon black, and this material is proven to effectively work as a cool pigment in a temperature rise experiment under near-infrared illumination.
The automotive industry has focused on the development of metallic materials with high specific strength, which can meet both fuel economy and safety goals. Here, a new class of ultrafine-grained high-Mn steels containing nano-scale oxides is developed using powder metallurgy. First, high-energy mechanical milling is performed to dissolve alloying elements in Fe and reduce the grain size to the nanometer regime. Second, the ball-milled powder is consolidated using spark plasma sintering. During spark plasma sintering, nanoscale manganese oxides are generated in Fe-15Mn steels, while other nanoscale oxides (e.g., aluminum, silicon, titanium) are produced in Fe-15Mn-3Al-3Si and Fe-15Mn-3Ti steels. Finally, the phases and resulting hardness of a variety of high-Mn steels are compared. As a result, the sintered pallets exhibit superior hardness when elements with higher oxygen affinity are added; these elements attract oxygen from Mn and form nanoscale oxides that can greatly improve the strength of high-Mn steels.
The annealing characteristics of cold-rolled Al-6.5Mg-1.5Zn-0.5Fe-0.5Mn alloy, newly designed as an automobile material, are investigated in detail, and compared with those of other aluminum alloys. Using multi-pass rolling at room temperature, the ingot aluminum alloy is cut to a thickness of 4 mm, width of 30 mm, and length of 100 mm to reduce the thickness to 1 mm (r = 75 %). Annealing after rolling is performed at various temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 oC for 1 hour. The specimens annealed at temperatures up to 300 oC show a deformation structure; however, from 350 oC they have a recrystallization structure consisting of almost equiaxed grains. The hardness distribution in the thickness direction of the annealed specimens is homogeneous at all annealing temperatures, and their average hardness decreases with increasing annealing temperature. The tensile strength of the as-rolled specimen shows a high value of 496 MPa; however, this value decreases with increasing annealing temperature and becomes 338MPa after annealing at 400 oC. These mechanical properties of the specimens are compared with those of other aluminum alloys, including commercial 5xxx system alloys.
The effect of intercritical annealing temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-9Mn-0.2C- 3Al-0.5Si medium manganese steels containing Cu and Ni is investigated in this study. Six kinds of medium manganese steels are fabricated by varying the chemical composition and intercritical annealing temperature. Hardness and tensile tests are performed to examine the correlation of microstructure and mechanical properties for the intercritical annealed medium manganese steels containing Cu and Ni. The microstructures of all the steels are composed mostly of lath ferrite, reverted austenite and cementite, regardless of annealing temperature. The room-temperature tensile test results show that the yield and tensile strengths decrease with increasing intercritical annealing temperature due to higher volume fraction and larger thickness of reverted austenite. On the other hand, total and uniform elongations, and strain hardening exponent increase due to higher dislocation density because transformation-induced plasticity is promoted with increasing annealing temperature by reduction in reverted austenite stability.
Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of an Fe-6.5Mn-0.08C medium-manganese steel is investigated in this study. Three kinds of medium-manganese steel specimens are fabricated by varying heat treatments of intermediate quenching (IQ), step quenching (SQ), and intercritical annealing (IA). Hardness and tensile tests are performed to examine the correlation of microstructure and mechanical properties for the Fe-6.5Mn-0.08C medium-manganese steel specimens. The IQ and SQ specimens have microstructures of martensite matrix with ferrite, whereas IA specimen exhibits microstructure of acicular ferrite matrix with martensite. The tensile test results show that the SQ specimen with martensite matrix has the highest yield strength and the lowest elongation. On the other hand, the SQ specimen has the highest hardness due to the relatively lower reduction of carbon content in martensite during intercritical annealing. According to the fractography of tensile tested specimens, the SQ specimen exhibits a dimple and quasi-cleavage fracture appearance while the IQ and IA specimens have fully ductile fracture appearance with fine-sized dimples caused by microvoid coalescence at ferrite and martensite interface.
A lean alloy is defined as a low alloy steel that minimizes the content of the alloying elements, while maintaining the characteristics of the sintered alloy. The purpose of this study is to determine the change in microstructure and mechanical properties due to the addition of silicon or tin in Fe-Mo-P, Fe-Mn-P, and Fe-Mo-Mn-P alloys. Silicon- or tin-added F-Mo-P, Fe-Mn-P, and Fe-Mo-Mn-P master alloys were compacted at 700 MPa and subsequently sintered under a H2-N2 atmosphere at 1120oC. The sintered density of three alloy systems decreases under the same compacting pressure due to dimensional expansion with increasing Si content. As the diffusion rate in the Fe- P-Mo system is higher than that in the Fe-P-Mn system, the decrease in the sintered density is the largest in the Fe-PMn system. The sintered density of Sn added alloys does not change with the increasing Sn content due to the effect of non-dimensional changes. However, the effect of Si addition on the transverse rupture strengthening enhancement is stronger than that of Sn addition in these lean alloys.
In this paper, a new Co10Fe10Mn35Ni35Zn10 high entropy alloy (HEA) is identified as a strong candidate for the single face-centered cubic (FCC) structure screened using the upgraded TCFE2000 thermodynamic CALPHAD database. The Co10Fe10Mn35Ni35Zn10 HEA is fabricated using the mechanical (MA) procedure and pressure-less sintering method. The Co10Fe10Mn35Ni35Zn10 HEA, which consists of elements with a large difference in melting point and atomic size, is successfully fabricated using powder metallurgy techniques. The MA behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the Co10Fe10Mn35Ni35Zn10 HEA are systematically studied to understand the MA behavior and develop advanced techniques for fabricating HEA products. After MA, a single FCC phase is found. After sintering at 900℃, the microstructure has an FCC single phase with an average grain size of 18 μm. Finally, the Co10Fe10Mn35Ni35Zn10 HEA has a compressive yield strength of 302 MPa.
In the present study, we investigate the effects of milling time and the addition of a process control agent (PCA) on the austenite stability of a nanocrystalline Fe-7%Mn alloy by XRD analysis and micrograph observation. Nanocrystalline Fe-7%Mn alloys samples are successfully fabricated by spark plasma sintering. The crystallite size of ball-milled powder and the volume fraction of austenite in the sintered sample are calculated using XRD analysis. Changes in the shape and structure of alloyed powder according to milling conditions are observed through FE-SEM. It is found that the crystallite size is reduced with increasing milling time and amount of PCA addition due to the variation in the balance between the cold-welding and fracturing processes. As a result, the austenite stability increased, resulting in an exceptionally high volume fraction of austenite retained at room temperature.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of grain size on the damping capacity of the Fe-26Mn-4Co-2Al damping alloy. α’ and ε-martensite were formed by cold working, and these martensites were formed with a specific direction and surface relief. With an increase in grain size, the volume fraction of α’ and ε-martensite increased by decrement the austenite phase stability. This volume fraction more rapidly increased in cold-rolled specimen than in the specimen that was not cold-rolled. The damping capacity also increased more with the augmentation an increased grain size and more rapidly increased in cold-rolled specimen than in the specimen that was not cold rolled. The effect of grain size on the damping capacity was larger in the cold-rolled specimen than the specimen that was not cold-rolled. Damping capacity linearly increased with an increase in volume fraction of ε-martensite. Thus, the damping capacity was affected by the ε-martensite.
The addition of a large amount of alloying elements reduces the compactibility and increases the compacting pressure, thereby shortening the life of the compacting die and increasing the process cost of commercial PM steel. In this study, the characteristic changes of Fe-Mo-P, Fe-Mn-P, and Fe-Mo-Mn-P alloys are investigated according to the Si contents to replace the expensive elements, such as Ni. All compacts with different Si contents are fabricated with the same green densities of 7.0 and 7.2 g/cm3. The transverse rupture strength (TRS) and sintered density are measured using the specimens obtained through the sintering process. The sintered density tends to decrease, whereas the TRS increases as the Si content increases. The TRS of the sintered specimen compacted with 7.2 g/cm3 is twice as high as that compacted with 7.0 g/cm3.
본 연구에서는 배가스 내 존재하는 오염물질인 NO의 처리효율을 증대시키기 위하여 NO 산화 공정을 연구하였으며, 강력한 산화력의 건식산화제를 제조하는 방법으로 H2O2 촉매분해가 도입되었다. H2O2 분해공정 상에서 적용 가능한 K-Mn/Fe2O3 불균일계 촉매가 제조되었으며, 이들이 가지는 물리화학 적 특성이 H2O2 분해반응에 미치는 영향이 조사되었다. 제조된 건식산화제는 NO가 포함된 모사 배가스를 처리하기 위한 NO 산화공정에 적용되었으며, 다양한 모사 배가스의 유량(5, 10, 20 L/min)에서 약 100% 가까운 NO 전환율을 확인 하였다.
In this study, two Fe-30Mn-0.2C-(1.5Al) high-manganese steels with different surface conditions were hydrogencharged under high temperature and pressure; then, tensile testing was performed at room temperature in air. The yield strength of the 30Mn-0.2C specimen increased with decreasing surface roughness(achieved via polishing), but that of the 30Mn-0.2C- 1.5Al specimen was hardly affected by the surface conditions. On the other hand, the tendency of hydrogen embrittlement of the two high-manganese steels was not sensitive to hydrogen charging or surface conditions from the standpoints of elongation and fracture behavior. Based on the EBSD analysis results, the small decrease in elongation of the charged specimens for the Fe-30Mn-0.2C-(1.5Al) high-manganese steels was attributed to the enhanced dislocation pile-up around grain boundaries, caused by hydrogen
A lean alloy is defined as a low alloy steel with a minimum amount of the alloying element that maintains the characteristics of the sintered alloy. It is well known that the addition of elements such as Cr, P, Si, or Mn improves the mechanical characteristics of the alloy, but decreases the sinterability. The mother alloy is used to avoid an oxidation reaction with the alloying elements of Cr, P, Si or Mn. The purpose of this study is to determine the change in the mechanical properties of Fe-P-Mo and Fe-P-Mn alloys as a result of the addition of Si. In this article, the Fe-P-Mo and Fe-P-Mn alloys to which Si is added are compacted at 7.0 g/cm3 and then sintered in H2-N2 at 1120℃. The P around the macropores and large grains reduces due to the formation of SiO2 as the Si content increases. This is caused by the increase in strength owing to reducing intergranular fracture by suppressing the reaction with oxygen.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of deformation induced martensite on the damping capacity of Fe-26Mn-4Co-2Al damping alloy. α‘ and ε-martensite were formed by cold working, and; deformation induced martensite was formed with according to the specific direction and the surface relief. With an increasing degree of cold rolling, the volume fraction of α‘-martensite increased rapidly, while the volume fraction of ε-martensite decreased after rising to a maximum value at a specific level of cold rolling. Damping capacity was increased, and then decreased with an increasing of the degree of cold rolling. Damping capacity was influenced greatly by the volume fraction of ε-martensite formed by cold working, but the effect of the volume fraction of α‘-martensite have a actually on effect on the damping capacity.
In the present study, the tensile properties and dynamic strain aging of an Fe-24.5Mn-4Cr-0.45C alloy were investigated in terms of strain rate. During tensile testing at room temperature, all the stress-strain curves exhibited serrated plastic flows related to dynamic strain aging, regardless of the strain rate. Serration appeared right after yield stress at lower strain rates, while it was hardly observed at high strain rates. On the other hand, strain-rate sensitivity, indicating a general relationship between flow stress and strain rate at constant strain and temperature, changed from positive to negative as the strain increased. The negative strain-rate sensitivity can be explained by the Portevin Le Chatelier effect, which is associated with dynamic strain aging and is dependent on the strain rate because it is very likely that the dynamic strain aging phenomenon in high-manganese steels is involved in the interaction between moving dislocations and point-defect complexes.