Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae and genus Orthomyxovirus. Avian and mammalian species are the host of IAVs, which includes humans and dogs. Canine influenza virus (CIV) is an emerging pathogen that causes severe and acute respiratory diseases in dogs. This study monitored the antigen and antibody against CIV in dogs in the Republic of Korea (ROK) from 2016 to 2021. One thousand and seventy-two nasal swabs and 1,545 blood samples were collected from animal hospitals and animal shelters. Five nasal swabs in 2017 and seven in 2018 from stray dogs were positive for CIV according to RT-PCR. The prevalence of H3N2 CIV ranged from 9.5% to 24.8%, according to the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. On the other hand, none of the serum samples from 2018 to 2021 showed seropositivity against the avian H5, H7, and H9 viruses. The HI titers for H3N2 ranged from 16 to 512. The distribution of HI titer 16–32 was 57.6% in seropositive samples. The pet dogs were vaccinated against CIV, but the stray and military dogs were unvaccinated. In 2017 and 2018, the seroprevalence of CIV in stray dogs was higher than in the other years, and viral RNA was detected in nasal swabs. It may mean previous exposure of stray dogs to CIV. With the increasing number of pet dogs and the close contact between humans and dogs, canines could serve as an intermediate host for transmitting IAVs to humans. Therefore, continuous surveillance of CIV is needed for public health and the potential emergence of novel zoonotic viruses.
Wild birds, especially aquatic birds, are the natural reservoir of avian influenza virus (AIV), and many kinds of water body can be contaminated with feces of these birds. Seasonally, AIVs can be dissolved in the environmental water from the feces of the infected birds, and this water can be a target for viral detection and identification. In this study, we employed and tested three different filters for concentrating AIV, and it was shown that high concentration factor in terms of viral density could be achieved with viral samples diluted with natural water. Wild bird fecal samples containing low pathogenicity H5 AIVs were successfully concentrated with the adsorption and elution method using mixed cellulose esters membrane; the recovery rate of virus was 35.5 % and the concentration factor was about 50 on average. For the larger volume of water sample, we proved that an inline disposable filter with high surface area, 300 cm2, has a comparable concentration factor to the adsorption and elution method and the filter could be used in the field conveniently by being plugged into peristaltic pump. These validated methods for water sampling may be used as a supplementary for virological surveillance on wild migratory birds or during the epidemiological investigation on the environment near affected premises by AIV.
The objective of this study is to estimate the dietary exposure of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibezofurans (PCDD/Fs) of Korean population via milk and meat using a probabilistic exposure assessment model. Total 319 raw milk and meat samples collected in the period 2006-2008 from nationwide Korea were measured the concentrations of 17 PCDD/Fs. Distributions of dietary exposure of 7 age subgroups to PCDD/Fs from the commodities were estimated probabilistically using Monte Carlo simulations. Dietary exposure groups were divided as lower, medium and high consumer subgroups according to the consumption of each commodity. The amounts of dietary exposures of Korean population subgroups were compared to the provisional maximum tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (JECFA). The mean PCDD/Fs concentrations in raw milk and meat of beef, prok and chicken were measured as 0.501, and 0.022~0.150pg WHO-TEQ/g, respectively. Dietary exposure of children was significantly higher than that of adults due to their high milk consumption per body weight (BW). Dietary intake of PCDD/Fs of the Korean populations estimated ranged from 0.154 to 1.248 pg WHO- TEQ/kg BW/day for high consumers (the 97.5th percentile) at the upper bound. Dietary intakes of average population of various subgroups were below the half of PTMI, but those of higher consumers were found exceeding or comparable to PTMI at the upper bound level. This study also suggests that the estimated PCDD/Fs concentrations in milk and meat are comparable to those reported in previous studies. Probabilistic assessment model for PCDD/Fs exposure in meat and milk commodities could be used to estimate the exposure of PCDD/Fs in Korean population for the development of risk mangement mesaures for PCDD/Fs in meat and milk.
Veterinary medicines have been widely used for disease protection, growth promotion, and feed efficacy development of animals. Along with development of livestock and pet industry, veterinary medicine market in Korea has increased up to 1 billion US dollar in 2021. The national post-market surveillance (NMS) assessment is important system to manage quality control of veterinary medicines that have reached the open market in Korea. In this study, post marketed veterinary medicines have been analyzed particularly for the active ingredient contents based on the rule, “Tips on animal pharmaceutical audit” and monitored the noncomplicant compounds for prevention of adverse drug event. 6,620 veterinray medicines were chosen by NVRQS-SE10-V1 software program which we developed annually in Korea during 2018-2021. The programe chooses veterinary medicines which is 70% were selected products with high sales in order, 20% were selected products with low sales randomly and 10% were noncompliant product from last year automatically, as we input year`s sales and noncompliant product data. The Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (APQA) leads collection of veterinary medicines from manufacturing companies, drug stores, and hospitals. The NMS assay was analyzed particularly for the active ingredient ingredients performed using liquid and gas chromatography, titration, UV/Vis spectrophometer, pH, and bioassay in Korea Animal Health Production Association (KAHPA). A total of 129 cases were deemed noncompliant and the average noncompliance rate for veterinray medicines was 1.9%. Among noncompliant products violating regulations, the leading cause was insufficient quantity of major ingredients. The compounds found to be noncompliant most frequently were tylosin, spiramycin, ampicillin, amoxicillin and colistin, respectively In this study, we analyzed the results of post marketing surveillance assay from 2018 to 2021 particularly violation rate and pattern. The overall trend indicated gradually decreasing noncompliance rate from 2.7% to 1.6%, suggesting that the quality of veterinary medicines has improved according to the steadily NMS assay and settlement of Korea Veterinary Good Manufacturing Practice (KVGMP) system.
This study aimed to determine if animal-assisted therapy could enhance language and social interactions in autistic children. It is a single case study of a 6.7-year-old child diagnosed with second-rate autism disorder with a program of twelve sessions in total, a session per week, and fifty minutes per session. The program was constructed to increase the frequency of using words and to improve interpersonal relationships through contact with peers or strangers. To do this, SCAR and E-CLAC scales went through a pretest and posttest and the changes in main behaviors observed during the twelves sessions were analyzed, obtaining the following results: First, the animal-assisted therapy program allowed the autistic child to use daily words about twice more frequently than usual. Second, the animal-assisted therapy program was effective in allowing the autistic child to improve social interactions with peers or strangers around the dog. Therefore, the animal-assisted therapy program was effective in helping the autistic child enhance language and social interactions.
Subunit vaccines are being developed as a potential therapy for preventing microbial pathogen infection. In this study, the immunogenicity of recombinant Brucella (B.) abortus Fe/Mn superoxide dismutase (rFe/Mn SOD) protein as a subunit vaccine against B. abortus was investigated in BALB/c mice model. Brucella Fe/Mn SOD gene was cloned into a pcold-TF DNA vector. The bacterial recombinant protein was expressed using the Escherichia coli DH5α strain with a size of 82.50 kDa. The western blotting assay showed that rFe/Mn SOD reacted with Brucella-positive serum, indicating the potential immunoreactivity of this recombinant protein. After the second and third vaccinations, the peripheral CD4+ T cell population was increased significantly in the rFe/Mn SOD-immunized mice group compared to the PBS control group. Moreover, immunization of this recombinant protein increased the CD4+ T cell population from the first vaccination to the third vaccination. Meanwhile, the CD8+ T cells were slightly enhanced after the second vaccination compared to the first vaccination and compared to control groups. Fourteen days after the bacterial infection, the splenomegaly and the number of bacteria in the spleen were evaluated. The result showed that both rFe/Mn SOD and positive control RB51 decreased the bacterial replication in the spleen and the splenomegaly compared to control groups. Altogether, these results suggested that rFe/Mn SOD could induce host immunity against B. abortus infection.
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is one of the etiological agents that causes diarrhea in weaning pigs. In this study, we report that mutating both relA and spoT genes in EPEC E2348/69 can promote bacterial clearance in porcine gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Our experimental analyses showed that an E2348/69 ΔrelAΔspoT mutant strain was not detected in porcine feces after 1 day post-infection (dpi), whereas its parental strain was continuously detected in porcine feces within 10 dpi. Histologic assessment revealed that the mutant strain was unable to induce moderate pathologic lesions in porcine GIT when compared to those with the wildtype strain. Taken together, our data suggest that the relA and spoT genes in EPEC play an important role in bacterial survival and pathogenesis in porcine GIT.
Pseudo-pheochromocytoma is defined as an adrenal tumor that has the typical characteristics of pheochromocytoma likely hypertension but is histopathologically diagnosed to other types of adrenal tumors. 11-year-old, castrated male Maltese presented for a left adrenal mass with hypertension. According to clinical signs and radiological features, a temporary diagnosis was made of pheochromocytoma. The adrenalectomy was performed and the histopathological examination of the resected adrenal gland was diagnosed as cortical adenocarcinoma. This report describes the case of pseudo-pheochromocytoma in a dog and implies the salience that even if pheochromocytoma is diagnosed based on all test results, pseudo-pheochromocytoma should not be excluded.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a very deadly and highly contagious disease that occurs in various cloven-hoofed animals. Korea imports vaccines including non-vaccinated serotype for the vaccine bank. The two company vaccines imported from 2019 to 2021 were evaluated through multiple tests based on national standard assay. SN titers for the vaccine of company A were more than 1.5 log10, those of company B vaccine in the geometric mean were at least 1.72. All imported vaccines exceeded the evaluation criteria, and the potency of each vaccine was above its own company standard. Stockpiled vaccines for emergency may help to control non-vaccinated serotypes of FMD outbreak nationally.