A progressive muscle atrophy is strongly associated with aging, resulting in lower quality of life in elderly individuals. This study was conducted to determine relative hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in the rabbit model of the sciatic nerve transection injury using non-invasive diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). From the 2nd week to the end of the experiment after sciatic nerve injury, a total muscle mass in nerve injured-group (NI group) significantly reduced compared with that in the normal group (p<0.001). During the capillary occlusion after nerve injury, the deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb-R) concentration in NI group significantly increased compared to that in the normal group at the 2nd and 3rd week after sciatic nerve injury (p<0.05). During the capillary release after nerve injury, the oxy-hemoglobin (Hb-O2) concentration in NI group significantly decreased at the 1st and 3rd week, and Hb-R significantly increased at 2nd week, compared to those in the normal group (p<0.05). Histological changes in the gastrocnemius muscle of NI group observed that clear fat filled spaces at the periphery of muscle fibers and angular fibers. From the results of this study, non-invasive DOS could be used to measure changes of Hb concentrations in muscles.
Since the 2010 foot and mouth (FMD) epidemic, the Korean government has applied a FMD vaccination to pigs. A FMD vaccine is injected to pigs by intramuscular (IM) route. One of the drawbacks in FMD vaccine IM injection is that it would result in an abnormal meat on the injection spot. An abnormal meat due to FMD vaccine IM injection would cause economic loss to pig farmers. An intradermal (ID) injection would be an alternative method for FMD vaccination. The goal of current study was to compare the antibody formation rate between FMD vaccine IM injection and ID injection. The antibody formation rate was measured by the FMD serotype O vaccination percent inhibition (PI) value. In total 350 pigs (175 for FMD vaccine IM injection and 175 for FMD vaccine ID injection) were included in the study. In results, the PI values of FMD vaccine IM injection group were significantly higher than it of FMD vaccine ID injection group. However, the proportions of pigs with PI value was higher than 50, which is a legislative requirement for marketing pigs, for both FMD vaccine IM and ID injection groups at week 20 or 23 were not significantly different. The current results indicated that a FMD vaccine ID injection could be an alternative method of IM injection.
Fenbendazole (FBZ) is one of the safest anthelmintic drugs. FBZ has been found to have anti-cancer effects by destabilizing microtubules. In this study, a synergistic effect of paclitaxel (PA), a microtubule-stabilizing anti-cancer agent, and FBZ was investigated on HL-60 cells, a human leukemia cell line. The metabolic activity of cells significantly decreased and the nucleus morphology upon the treatment of FBZ and PA based on 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assay and Hoechst 33342 staining, respectively. To investigate the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the metabolic activity of the cells after treatment of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) was measured. Indeed, NAC significantly increased the metabolic activity of the cells treated with FBZ and PA, suggesting that both drugs affect at least in part via ROS. Furthermore, FBZ and PA increased cell death in an annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining assay. Taken together, FBZ and PA have a synergistic anti-cancer activity on HL-60 cells at a certain concentration. These results may provide researchers and clinicians in cancer-related fields with some valuable information to broaden the use of FBZ.
Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporin in Enterobacteriaceae is increasingly prevalent in South Korea. This study aims to explore the distribution of AmpC genes in Proteus mirabilis isolated from stray and hospital-admitted companion animals in South Korea. AmpC β-lactamases hold clinical significance due to its potential to facilitate antimicrobial resistance to cefoxitin, cefazolin, and most penicillins. A total of 163 bacterial isolates belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family were collected from dogs (n = 158) and cats (n=5). Of them, 134 isolates were from hospital-admitted animals, while 29 isolates from stray animals. Boronic acid tests and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were conducted for an initial screening to detect AmpC β-lactamase resistant P. mirabilis. Gene-specific PCRs were conducted to identify the type of AmpC genes, which include six groups (MOXM, CITM, DHAM, ACCM, EBCM, and FOXM), in the resistant isolates. The boronic acid disk tests revealed 45 (27.6%) positive isolates out of 163 isolates tested. Of these 45 isolates, six were determined to harbor the EBCM gene, 13 for CITM, one for FOXM, and one for DHAM by single detection PCR. No isolates carried for ACCM or MOXM. Thus, a total of 21 out of 163 isolates (12.9%) were demonstrated to possess AmpC genes. No isolates contain more than one group of AmpC gene family. A significantly higher percentage of P. mirabilis was found to possess AmpC genes compared to past studies. Therefore, the increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance in P. mirabilis indicates a dire need to monitor antimicrobial prescription in the veterinary field.
Feral cats are widely considered to be leading the potential impacts on public health. This study aimed to provide estimates of vital data for feral cats relating Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) to establish strategies effectively to manage feral cats in Pyeongtaek. Thus, this study focused on estimating feral cat population in Pyeongtaek and conducted a comparative analysis of the data for feral cats in Seoul (2013). The number of feral cats was estimated from 23,069 to 26,655 in Pyeongtaek, 2019. In relation to human population, when comparing the number of feral cats of Pyeongtaek and Seoul, it ranged from 4.57% to 5.28%, and from 1.97% to 2.55% respectively. This showed that Pyeongtaek was higher than Seoul. Fewer kittens were found in high-density areas, which the TNR project is believed to be generally effective in controlling the number of feral cats. In conclusion, in urban and rural complexes such as Pyeongtaek City, the number of feral cats compared to the population was higher than that of Seoul City, and the TNR program is believed to be somewhat effective in controlling the number of feral cats. When implementing TNR, it is necessary periodically to investigate the population and reflect them in policymaking.
The detection of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in environmental samples with precision is imperative to control bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infections at the herd level, as residual M. bovis remains one of the major causes of recurring infections. In this study, a nested PCR method for the detection of M. bovis in environmental samples was applied to identify potential environmental reservoirs of the bacterium. A set of 200 environmental samples (167 fecal samples and 33 water samples) from 39 herds with a history of bTB outbreak was analyzed using a nested PCR method to detect residual M. bovis. Amplicon libraries of the IS6110 target gene fragment were amplified from M. bovis DNA using two established primer sets. A positive nested PCR result was observed in 69.5% of fecal samples and 66.7% of water samples, thus showing that residual M. bovis was present in the environmental samples of bTB-positive herds in a high proportion. This study is the first to demonstrate high levels of M. bovis DNA in environmental samples and to show that environmental reservoirs of this pathogen contribute to recurring outbreaks of bTB. Environmental monitoring of herds in which bTB outbreaks have occurred with high sensitivity and specificity is expected to help prevent the recurrence of potential bTB disease and improve the herd environment.
The estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI, the time that has elapsed since the death) is a critical issue for the biosecurity enforcement officers who implement to the timely establishment of biosecurity zone for preventing susceptible animals from disease transmission given the rapid occurrence of an infectious disease. Increasing attention has been paid to PMI of wild boar (Sus scrofa) carcasses associated with African swine fever epidemics in Korea since October 2019 to explain the geographical transmission of the disease, as well as to provide potential target animals for prevention measures in terms of farm biosecurity. This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to describe the decomposition process of wild boars in different microhabitats in the country. In the present comparative study, we obtained field data from the decomposition process of the wild boar and domestic pig carcasses continuously exposed aboveground in natural environment settings allowing animal scavenging. This study compared the pattern of decomposition in 16 wild boar carrion and 10 domestic pig carcasses placed between August and November 2019. Quite differences in decomposition rate measured by total body score and tissue's gross morphology over time were observed between wild boars and domestic pigs. Overall, the wild boar decomposed much more slowly than the domestic pig throughout the end of the experimental period. In addition, color changes to the skin were easily seen in domestic pigs, whereas there is much variation in the wild boar, especially carcasses placed in late autumn. Moreover, some wild boar carcasses did not show any sign of bloating. These results indicate that decomposition rates derived from forensic taphonomic studies on domestic pigs may be not directly applicable to the wild boar, hence there is a need to develop regional decomposition models to be employed in different geographical situations to increase the accuracy of PMI of wild boar carcasses.
In the present study, a novel ELISA method used recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rNP) as the coating agent. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) protein was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Though the rNP-ELISA results were consistent with commercial ELISA results for the NDV-negative sera samples, qualitatively and quantitatively variable (often reduced) results were obtained with NDV-positive sera. Although the rNP-ELISA results for NDV detection were inconclusive, further improvement and standardization of the rNP-ELISA approach, such as using multiple recombinant proteins as the ELISA coating agent and performing comprehensive statistical analyses of combined recombinant protein ELISA, should help counter Newcastle disease outbreaks by improving NDV detection.