We investigated the effects of two Brucella proteins expressed in a pMAL expression system, RocF and EF-Ts, as subunit vaccines on immune modulation and protective efficacy using a mouse model. Mice vaccinated with MBP-RocF and MBP-EF-Ts displayed increased production of TNF, IFN-, MCP-1, IL-10 and IL-6, and TNF and MCP-1, respectively. Furthermore, mice vaccinated with MBP-EF-Ts showed decreased induction of IFN- and Th2-related cytokines, IL-10 and IL-6. Higher proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were observed in the blood of mice vaccinated with MBP-RocF than in the PBS-vaccinated group, although the increases were not significant. Furthermore, significantly reduced Brucella proliferation in the spleens of the MBP-RocF and MBP-EF-Ts groups were observed, but inflammation of these organs was not attenuated. Overall, these results indicate that RocF and EF-Ts could be potential subunit vaccine candidates against animal brucellosis.
Chlorine dioxide gas is a relatively new sanitizer in the food industry and has more accessibility than its aqueous form. Depending on the generation method of ClO2, there can be byproducts like chlorite and chlorate ions that can decrease the disinfectant efficacy and purity of ClO2. Recently, a new technology has been developed that generates chlorine dioxide without using chlorine gas. This new electrochemical method generates gaseous chlorine dioxide from aqueous sodium chlorite (NaClO2). Unlike earlier methods, there is reduced generation of byproducts, including chlorite and chlorate. Additionally, the purity of ClO2 obtained by this method can be as high as 98%.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ClO2 gas, generated by the electrochemical method, against the foodborne microorganisms occurring on slaughter equipment and livestock carcasses. Using AISI 304 stainless steel in livestock processing equipment, the disinfectant effect of chlorine dioxide gas, in presence of organic matter such as yeast extract and feces, on E. coli and S. typhimurium contamination, was examined. Both E. coli and S. typhimurium counts were reduced by more than 5 log cycles in presence of 2.5% and 5% feces. When beef, pork skin, and chicken wings were treated with chlorine dioxide gas, despite significant differences in comparison with the control group, the microbial count was reduced by less than 2 log cycles.
Overall, our results confirmed the applicability of gaseous chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant in livestock processing equipment and livestock products.
Doxorubicin has been used to treating cancers, including breast cancer, bladder cancer, and acute lymphocytic leukemia, however, few studies have investigated its anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we used mouse spleen cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a representative inflammatory agent to investigate the effects of doxorubicin. Specially, we investigated the effects of doxorubicin on metabolic activity, cell size, cell death, and cytokine production of LPS-treated spleen cells. Doxorubicin significantly decreased the metabolic activity, even when applied at relatively low concentrations (1.6-8 ng/mL). To investigate the potential mechanism, we measured the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of the LPS-treated spleen cells using Rhodamine 123. Doxorubicin decreased MMP and cell size, and induced cell death. Furthermore, doxorubicin suppressed the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, a representative cytokine, in LPS-treated spleen cells. Taken together, doxorubicin decreased metabolic activity and the production of inflammatory cytokines, while increasing the death of LPS-induced hyperactivated spleen cells. This results will enable broader application of doxorubicin, as an anti-inflammatory agent, in clinical and research fields.
The distribution of chiggers and Orientia tsutsugamushi, were investigated at five sites in Seogwipo, Jeju Province in 2017. To accomplish this, 100 Sherman traps were installed to collect the larva of mites from 28 wild rodents and analyze them in April, October and November. A total of 2,560 chiggers were collected, among which 1,283 underwent inspection for Orientia tsutsugamushi and 1,277 were found to contain the organism. Leptotrombidium zetum accounted for 517 of the 1,277 species, or 40.5% of the total, making it the dominant species. Other major species included Leptotrombidium scutellare, which were found in 432 (33.8%) samples, Neotrombicula nagayoi, which was found in 141 (5.5%) samples, and Leptotrombidium orientale, which was found in 72 (2.8%) samples. The majority of the species collected in April were Leptotrombidium zetum, but in fall, the majority were Leptotrombidium scutellare and Leptotrombidium zetum. Additionally, Leptotrombidium scutellare was mainly collected
This study was conducted to investigate anti-inflammatory and wrinkle improvement effects of Sophora flavescens Aiton water extracts (SWE) treated with proteolytic enzyme. The antioxidant activity of proteolyzed Sophora flavescens Aiton water extracts (SWE-E) showed increased total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, electron-donating ability and ABTS+ free radical scavenging activity compared with SWE. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects, the inhibition of NO production was assessed in RAW 264.7 cells induced by LPS. The SWE-E showed an increased anti-inflammatory effect compared with SWE at the same concentration. The anti-wrinkle effect was evaluated by the rate of collagenase and elastase inhibitory activity, which was determined by the MMP-1 mRNA measured in human dermal fibroblast (HDF) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Collagenase and elastase are important enzymes that play roles in wrinkle formation, and SWE-E showed a significantly higher collagenase inhibition rate than non-treated extracts. The MMP-1 mRNA in HDF cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, SWE was shown to be a non-irritant in the BCOP assay, which is an alternative method to in vivo eye irritation test. Taken together, these results suggest that proteolytic enzyme could enhance the antioxidant activity, as well as the anti-inflammatory and anti-wrinkle effects of SWE, and that SWE-E could be used as a cosmeceutical ingredient.
Chitosan is attracting attention as a health supplement material because of its various physiological activities. In this study, sugar solution containing chitosan was fed to honey bees to induce the production of ‘chitosan fortified honey’ by their same mode of natural honey production. To accomplish this, sugar solutions containing 0.1%, 1%, 2% and 5% chitosan were fed to the honey bees. Fully inverted Chitosan-honey was harvested after feeding the chitosan in sugar solution. To investigate the anti-obesity and immune-enhancing effects of Chitosan-honey, 1% and 10% Chitosan-honey containing drinking water were administrated freely to C57BL mice. Glucosamine concentrations in serum rapidly increased to peak levels in 10 minutes (1261.0 ± 97.6 ng/ml), then decreased gradually for more than 24 hours 793.0 ± 34.7 ng/ml. There were no significant differences in weight and or splenocyte proliferative capacity among experimental mice groups. However, increased granulocytes and monocytes were observed upon flow cytometric analysis. These results suggest that Chitosan-honey could induce removal of foreign antigens. In conclusion, ‘Chitosan-honey’ developed in this study has the potential for use as a honey type dietary health supplement with the same bioactivity as chitosan; however additional research should be conducted to confirm these effects.
Food hazards caused by Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point(HACCP) products are closely related to the failure of prerequisite program. ISO 22000 introduced the Operational Prerequisite Program (OPRP) to enhance management of the prerequisite program. This program has started to strengthen discriminatory management of hazards identified as high in risk analysis but not selected as Critical Control Points. In addition, the US-FDA has begun to apply Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) obligations to all foods manufacturing and distribution including imported foods. The basic concept of the FSMA is Hazard Analysis and Risk-based Preventive Control (HARPC), which is similar to the OPRP. It is necessary to strengthen the management of the prerequisite program by using the OPRP or HARPC concept, which will improve the effectiveness of HACCP operation.