Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a clinical syndrome caused by the migration of certain larval nematodes through the tissues of an aberrant host. VLM in humans is most frequently associated with Toxocara canis, the common roundworm of dogs. To demonstrate the prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs in public playgrounds in Seoul city, soil samples collected from April to December in 2012 were examined. Eggs of parasite were found 4 of 1,174 in soil samples from public playgrounds and educational facilities in Seoul. Of the 1,174 soil samples examined, 0.34% of samples were found th be positive ova of Toxocara canis. Soil samples in educational facilities were more contaminated (0.57%) with the eggs than those in public playground area (0%). Most Toxocara canis eggs in sands were found in the autumn.
During January-November 2012, a total of 2,041 quarter milk samples were collected from dairy cattle of 82 dairy farms nationwide. About 42% (870/2,041) of the samples that had somatic cell counts (SCC) of ≥ 200,000 cells/ml were subjected to microbiological examination. No bacteria was isolated from 95 of 870 (10.9%) samples. Among 1,237 bacteria isolated from the rest 775 samples, 1,085 were identified with VITEK: more than half (52.1%, 645/1,237) of the isolates were gram negative bacillus. Gram positive cocci including Staphylococcus accounted for 35% of the isolates and almost none of gram positive bacilli isolated. Excluding Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), the most frequently isolated bacterial species was Escherichia coli (11.2%, 138/1, 237), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.1%,100/1,237), Staphylococcus aureus (7.1%, 88/1, 237), Enterobacter cloacae (6.0%, 74/1, 237), and Serratia marcescens (3.5%, 43/1, 237). The most common resistance of S. aureus was to penicillin (77.4%) and ampicillin (73.0%), while no resistance was observed against gentamicin and cephalothin. Although CNS presented resistance to all antimicrobials tested but the most prevalent resistance was to penicillin (35.6%) and ampicillin (37.0%). The pattern of antimicrobial resistance observed in CNS was similar to that of S. aureus, but the rates were much lower than those of S. aureus. E. coli also showed resistance to all the antimicrobials tested, although the rates were not very high. The highest resistance of E. coli was to cephalothin (39.4%) and ampicillin (36.2%), while most of the strains (98.0%) showed sensitivity to amikacin. The results of this study provide information on current situation of bovine mastitis in Korea.
As veterinary medicine industry has grown up steadily, the government quality control of veterinary medicine in market has been performed since 1964. The result of post-market surveillance assay from 2009 to 2012 was analyzed in this study. The average violation rate of all veterinary medicines, was 3.2%, 2.8%, 2.8% and 1.4% in 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. The total average violation rate in the category of antibiotics, other drugs except antibiotics, biologics were 1.2%, 4.4% and 0.8%, respectively. The violations due to insufficiency of major active ingredient content occupied 76.7% among the total violations. The most frequent violated in antibiotics were ampicillin and tylosin, followed by sulfonamides, penicillins etc. In case of other drugs except antibiotics, vitamin A and glucocorticoids (dexamethasone and prednisolone) were violated frequently. The overall trend of violation rates gradually decreased from 2009 to 2012, suggesting that quality of veterinary medicines has improved according to Korea Veterinary Good Manufacturing Practice (KVGMP) system settled down in 1988.
Salmonella are widespread in humans and animals worldwide and are public health concern as causative pathogens of food poisoning. The aim of this study was to survey the level of Salmonella contamination in a chicken slaughter plant and to analyze the characterization of Salmonella isolates by serotype, antimicrobial resistance and phage type. Among 170 feces of transport box from 17 farms and 100 carcasses originated 20 farms, Salmonella were identified in 54 feces (13 farms) and 29 carcasses (11 farms). A total of 150 Salmonella isolates from feces and 73 isolates from carcasses were analyzed. One hundred and forty five isolates (96.7%) from feces and 68 isolates (93.2%) from carcasses were Salmonella enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and 3 isolates and 2 isolates from feces were S. isangi and S. blockley, respectively. Three isolates from carcasses were S. blockley, and S. isangi was not detected at carcasses. The most common phage type (PT) of S. Enteritidis was PT 1, followed by PT 1c, PT 21, PT 24var, PT 6a, and PT 7. Antimicrobial resistance testing was performed by disk diffusion method using 19 antibiotics. The highest percentage of antimicrobial resistance of isolates from feces and carcasses were found to the following antibiotics: trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Sxt, 83.3% and 93.2%), tetracycline (Te, 40.0% and 15.1%) and ampicillin (Am, 16.0% and 20.5%). Also, the most frequent multiresistance pattern of isolates from feces and carcasses were Te-Sxt (34.0%) and Am-Sxt (19.2%), respectively.
Organophosphate and carbamate pesticides are used to control pests in agricultural industry and home gardening. These toxic compounds operate through inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, allowing acetylcholine to transfer nerve impulses indefinitely, and causing various symptoms such as weakness and paralysis. Monocrotophos is an organophosphate insecticide, which is highly toxic to birds and human beings. Totally 57 dead doves were sent to the Seoul Metropolitan Government Research Institute of Public Health & Environment for further examination. All of the carcasses were found in Gwanak-gu two times, 18 doves on 7 August 2012 and 39 doves on 1 October 2012 respectively. Gross examinations revealed no evidence of any specific disease condition. The contents of gastrointestinal tracts contained residues of monocrotophos ranged from 600.57 to 749.2 mg/kg in 18 dead doves and 5,064 mg/kg in 39 dead doves. Based on these evidences, we conclude that the doves died due to monocrotophos poisoning after taking the food contaminated by monocrotophos. It was assumed that a misuse and an abuse case of commonly used pesticides in Korea.
This study presents a smartphone application, named「Vepi Tools」. This stand-alone type application is aiming at supporting on-site decision-making for animal health professionals. It provides basic calculations of epidemiology including estimating disease frequency, measuring associations using two-by-two table, calculating sample sizes to detect disease, and to estimate a mean or prevalence. Rationale and examples are available for each function. This study shows some use cases with this「Vepi Tools」application.
Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death among the aging men. Surgical or radio therapy is effective when the cancer is confined to the prostate gland but once the cancer spreads beyond the pelvis, even chemotherapy and hormonal ablation therapy fails in curing this disease. Our previous studies have shown that β-glucan induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Cellular viability of these cells treated with β-glucan was measured by MTT assay. β-glucan induced dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell viability in LNCaP cancer cells. In flow cytometry analysis, β-glucan induced dose- and timedependent apoptotic activities in LNCaP cancer cells. In addition, increased of expression caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax, and cytochrome C but decreased of expression Bcl-2 was observed in LNCaP cells treated with β-glucan. These results suggest that β-glucan induces apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells mediated mainly through the increased of expression caspase-3, -9, Bax, cytochrome C and decreased of expression Bcl-2.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major of outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and one of the most potent microbial initiators of inflammation. From the previous study showed that exposure to a low dose of LPS renders animals tolerant to a lethal dose of LPS, and protects against the toxicity of various chemicals. However, the effects of LPS treatment in thioacetamide (TA) - induced liver injury remain largely unknown. Liver injury caused by various toxic chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride, alcohol, dimethylnitrosamine. Here, we induced rat liver injury by intraperitoneal injection of TA, a representative hepatic fibrosis inducer. In this study, we investigated the effects of LPS in TA group, LPS group, LPS/TA group and vehicle control group on Sprague-Dawely rats (five rats for each group). All rats at the end of the experiment were sacrificed, and liver and serum were obtained. Serological analysis and hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that LPS/TA co-treatment was associated with decrease of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and totalbilirubin and fibrosis than in TA-treated rats. RT-PCR showed that the levels of IL-6 and Cox2 mRNA were lower in the liver of LPS/TA-cotreated rats than in TA-treated rats. There were no significant differences ALT, ALP, AST, total-bilirubin, IL-6 and Cox2 between vehicle control and LPS-treated rats. These results imply that LPS/TA cotreatment partially alleviates the TA-induced liver injury of rats by reducing inflammatory response.