Iron-overload can cause harmful effects such as cancer and aging via promoting the production of free radicals. The effect of orally administered nano-Fe overload with ascorbic acid on colon carcinogenesis was investigated in male ICR mice. After a 1-week acclimation, 5-week-old mice received three intraperitoneal injections (experimental week 0-2) of azoxymethane (AOM, 10 mg/kg body weight) weekly, followed by 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for the next 1 week to induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Animals were divided into four groups; carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) alone (control), CMC + ascorbic acid (AA), CMC + nano-Fe (NFe), and CMC + NFe + AA groups. Animals were fed an AIN-76A purified rodent diet and daily administrated oral doses of 450 ppm each of nano-Fe and AA combination for 6 weeks. The colonic mucosa was stained with 0.5% methylene blue, and then the ACF and polyps were counted. Lipid peroxidation in the serum and liver was evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Iron concentration in the liver was measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). Iron concentration in the liver of the NFe-overloaded groups was higher than that of the control (p<0.05). AA treatment increased the iron concentration in the liver. The number of ACF was not significantly different among all the groups. The number of polyps in all the NFe-treated groups was slightly higher than that in the control group and AA only-treated group. The serum TBARS was not significantly different among all the groups, but that in the liver was higher in all the NFe-treated groups than it was in the control group (p<0.05). These results indicate that the additional NFe treatment did not affect the experimental colon carcinogenesis in mice regardless of the presence of ascorbic acid.
Vitamin K1 is a fat-soluble vitamin essential for human health. We used the Association of Official Analytical Chemists(AOAC) method 999.15, validated by the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use(ICH) Guideline, to monitor vitamin K1 content in infant formula in the Republic of Korea. The Certified Reference Materials (CRM), NIST 1849a, were used for validation of the test method. The parameters of validation were linearity, range, specificity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ and recovery. The linearity, R2 was above 0.999 and the analytical range was 0.001 to 0.22 μg/mL. The specificity was confirmed by the retention time (RT) and positive/negative sample test. The accuracy, precision and recovery values were 101.13 ± 0.13 %, 3.15 % and 81.60 % - 99.78 %. The LOD and LOQ values were 0.582 ng/mL and 1.76 ng/mL, respectively. Five livestock products inspection agencies voluntarily participated in the collaborative study. The HORRAT value was 0.6, which was within the reference value 0.5 – 2.0. The validated test method was applied for the monitoring of vitamin K1 in infant formula in the Republic of Korea. The results also conformed to 'The Standard for Livestock Products of Processing and Ingredient Specifications' and 'The Standard for Livestock Products Labeling'.
Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide that is purified from brown algae, such as Fucus vesiculosus. This compound has multiple biological activities including immune-stimulating, and anti-viral activities. We recently demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of fucoidan can be dependent on the batch of its production and its molecular weight. In a previous study, fucoidan B exerted cytotoxicity toward mouse spleen cells. To confirm the biological activity of Fucoidan B, we cultured HL-60 cells, a human leukemia cell line, and treated then with fucoidan. The metabolic activity of the HL-60 cells decreased in response to treatment by fucoidan. Moreover, the morphology of HL-60 treated by fucoidan changed. To investigate the fucoidan’s effects, we analyzed the size and level of Annexin V/propidium iodide staining of HL-60 cells using a flow cytometer. Fucoidan consistently induced cell death, including apoptosis of HL-60 cells. As potential mechanisms, fucoidan destabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential and altered the production of reactive oxygen species in HL-60 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that fucoidan has anti-tumor activity on HL-60 cells via destabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential. The present study demonstrates that fucoidan can be used as an anti-cancer agent for leukemia.
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men and women who consume a Western diet. We investigated the inhibitory effect of selenium (sodium selenite, Na2SeO3) and selenium nanoparticles (nano-Se) on experimental colon carcinogenesis in ICR mice. After a 1-week acclimation, 6-week-old mice received three intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections (experimental week 0-2) of azoxymethane (AOM, 10 mg/kg body weight, b.w.), followed by 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-containing drinking water for the next 1 week. The three groups (10 mice/group) were orally administered either distilled water (control), selenium (1.7 ppm), or nano-Se (1.7 ppm) daily for 8 weeks. The numbers of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), aberrant crypt (AC), and tumorous lesions were measured in colonic mucosa. Se and nano-Se treatments significantly decreased the number of ACF, AC, and tumorous lesions compared with the control. However, there was no significant difference between the selenium and nano-Se groups. The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in the liver and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity in serum, were high in the selenium and nano-Se groups, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level was low in both Se and nano-Se groups when compared with that in the control group. These findings indicate that selenium and nano-Se showed similar protective effects against colon carcinogenesis by inhibiting the development of ACF and tumorous lesions in mice.
Choline is an amine essential to maintenance of good health. Here, we modified the ion chromatographic method for measuring choline described by Laikhtman & Rohrer and validated by the ICH guideline and applied it to monitoring of choline content in infant formula in the Republic of Korea.
The Certified Reference Materials (CRM), NIST 1849a, were used for validation of the modified method. The parameters of validation were linearity, range, specificity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ and recovery. The linearity, R2, was above 0.999 and the analytical range was 2.5 to 50 μg/mL. The specificity was confirmed by the retention time (RT) and positive tests with calibration standard and CRM. The accuracy, precision and recovery values were 99.6 ± 2.41 %, 2.42 % and 90.8 - 92.8 %. The LOD and LOQ values were 0.03 mg/kg and 0.17 mg/kg, respectively. Five livestock products inspection agencies voluntarily participated in the collaborative study. The result, HORRAT value was 0.8 which was within the reference value 0.5 – 2.0. The validated method was applied to the analysis of choline in infant formula in the Republic of Korea. The results also conformed to 'The Standard for Livestock Products Labeling'.