This study investigated the characteristics of obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HD) over 13 weeks in Rhbdf2 gene knockout (KO) mice. Forty 7-week-old Rhbdf2 wild and KO mice were used and the mice were divided into 4 groups: Wild-ND (n=10, Rhbdf2 wild mice, normal diet (ND)), Wild-HD (n=10, Rhbdf2 wild mice, HD), KO-ND (n=10, Rhbdf2 KO mice, ND) and KO-HD (n=10, Rhbdf2 KO mice, HD). The relative epididymal fat weight in KO-HD was significantly increased compared with that in KO-ND (P<0.01). The relative liver and spleen weights in KO-HD were decreased compared with those in Wild-HD (p < 0.05) and KO-ND (p < 0.01). The mRNA expression of SOD1 in KO-ND was significantly reduced compared with that in Wild-ND (p < 0.05). In Wild-ND and HD, the mRNA expressions of TNF-α and IL-6 in epididymal fat were significantly increased compared with those in KO-ND and HD (p < 0.01). A significant increase of TNF- α and IL-6 mRNA expression was observed in KO-HD compared with KO-ND (p < 0.01). These results indicated that Rhbdf2 genes may regulate high fat diet-induced obesity damage by anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative roles in fat tissue of mice.
The present study aimed to develop growth prediction models of Listeria monocytogenes in processed meat products, such as mixed pressed hams, to perform accurate microbial risk assessments. Considering cold storage temperatures and the amount of time in the stages of consumption after opening, the growth of L. monocytogenes was determined as a function of temperature at 0, 5, 10, and 15 ℃, and time at 0, 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 days. Based on the results of these measurements, a Baranyi model using the primary model was developed. The input parameters of the Baranyi equation in the variable temperature for polynomial regression as a secondary model were developed: SGR = 0.1715 + 0.0199T + 0.0012T2, LT = 5.5730 - 0.3215T + 0.0051T2 with R2 values 0.9972 and 0.9772, respectively. The RMSE (Root mean squared error), Bf (bias factor), and Af (accuracy factor) on the growth prediction model were determined to be 0.30, 0.72, and 1.50 in SGR (specific growth rate), and 0.10, 0.84, and 1.35 in LT (lag time), respectively. Therefore, the model developed in this study can be used to determine microorganism growth in the stages of consumption of mixed pressed hams and has potential in microbial risk assessments (MRAs).
Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) may cause diarrhea and enterotoxemia in adult and young livestock, leading to problems in the production and management of farms. Four hundred fecal samples were collected from 25 goat farms located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province in the Republic of Korea. Sixteen C. perfringens strains were isolates from fecal samples, and the isolates were identified as type A (n=11) and type D (n=5). Additionally, α- and ε-toxin genes were detected in 16 and 5 strains by PCR, respectively, and the enterotoxin gene was presented in 2 strains. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method and E-test method. In the disk diffusion method, ampicillin (n=16) and chloramphenicol (n=15) were highly susceptible to 16 C. perfringens isolates. In the E-test method, ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and meropenem were susceptible to more than 14 of 16 C. perfringens isolates. This study indicates that administration of antibiotics such as ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and meropenem can prevent and treat C. perfringens infections in goats.
This study evaluated the protective effects of a combination of eight B. abortus recombinant proteins that were cloned and expressed into a pMal vector system and DH5α: nucleoside diphosphate kinase (rNdk), 50S ribosomal protein (rL7/L12), malate dehydrogenase (rMDH), DNA starvation/stationary phase protection protein (rDps), elongation factor (rTsf), arginase (rRocF), superoxide dismutase (rSodC), and riboflavin synthase subunit beta (rRibH). The proteins were induced, purified, and administered intraperitoneally into BALB/c mice. The mice were immunized three times at weeks 0, 2, and 5 and then infected intraperitoneally (IP) with 5×104 CFU of virulent B. abortus 544 one week after the last immunization. The spleens were collected and the bacterial burden was evaluated at four weeks post-infection. The results showed that this combination produced a significant reduction of the bacterial burden in the spleen with a log reduction of 1.01 compared to the PBS group. Cytokine analysis revealed induction of the cell-mediated immune response in that TNF (tumor necrosis factor) and proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 (Interleukin 6) and MCP-1 (macrophage chemoattractant protein-1) were elevated significantly. In summary, vaccination with a combination of eight different proteins induced a significant protective effect indicative of a cell mediated immune response.
The cost-effectiveness of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control strategies was evaluated using a simulation model fitted to the 2010/11 FMD epidemic in the city of Andong, Republic of Korea. Seven FMD-control strategies were evaluated with respect to the direct cost of a FMD-control strategy, such as slaughtering, movement restriction, and vaccination. All the strategies included pre-emptive slaughtering, movement restriction, and vaccination, but the levels of each control option were different. The simulated median cost of the baseline FMD-control strategy (three kilometers of pre-emptive slaughtering area, 100 days of movement restriction and vaccination of all FMD-susceptible animals in the study area) was estimated to be USD 99.7 million. When a five kilometer vaccination area was applied (with the other control measures being the same as the baseline strategy), the simulated median cost was reduced to USD 81.1 million from USD 99.7. The simulated median costs were USD 107.6 million for a five kilometer radius slaughtering area and USD 168.8 million for 60 days of movement restriction. The FMD-control strategy cost decreased with increasing number of farms depopulated per day. The probability of passive surveillance being effective or the probability of the successful implementation of movement restrictions were increased. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a suitable tool for evaluating the financial consequences of FMD-control strategies by comparing the cost of control strategies for a specific area.
A study of the tissue depletion of florfenicol (FFC) administered orally to pigs at a dose of 0.05 kg/ton feed for 7 days was performed. Sixteen healthy cross swine were administered with FFC. Four treated animals were arbitrarily selected to be sacrificed 1, 3 and 5 days after the end of treatment. FFC residue concentrations in muscle, liver, kidney, and fat were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet photometric detector at 230 nm. The correlation coefficient (R2) of the calibration curve for florfenicol amine (FFCa) was > 0.997 and the limits of detection and quantification were 0.012 and 0.040 μg/mL, respectively. Recovery rates in swine edible tissues ranged from 79.1 to 93.5%. In the FFC-treated group, FFC residues at 3 days post-treatment were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in muscle, kidney and fat, and those at 5 days post-administration were below the MRLs in all edible tissues. These results suggest that the withdrawal period of FFC after the drug treatment might be 5 days, which is a sufficient amount of time for reduction of the FFC residues below the MRLs in all edible tissues.
Disulfiram is a drug used to treat alcohol dependence. Recent studies have shown that disulfiram also has anti-cancer effects. Considering that many anti-cancer agents have side effects, including immunosuppression, it is important to check if disulfiram has some cytotoxicity to immune cells. In this study, mouse spleen cells were treated with disulfiram and the metabolic activity was measured. Disulfiram increased the cell death of spleen cells according to annexin V-FITC/PI staining analysis. In addition, disulfiram decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential of spleen cells. The toxicity of disulfiram was concentration dependent. Interestingly, disulfiram affected the population of lymphocytes and the subset of spleen cells was altered. This study provides clinicians and researchers with valuable information regarding the toxicity of disulfiram to mouse spleen cells, particularly lymphocytes.
This study examined the overdose toxicity of Super-Neophensan, containing florfenicol and acetaminophen, upon pigs. SNP-3.0 (n=10) was administered at the dosage level of 3 kg/ton feed for 7 consecutive days, which is 3 times the recommended dose based on the guidelines of the manufacturer, and the control group (CON) (n=10) was administered the normal diet without the drug. The body weight, weight gain and feed efficiency in SNP-3.0 treated with the drug for 14 days post-administration showed no significant differences compared with those in CON. In hematological and blood biochemical analyses, all parameters were not affected by over-dosage of the drug. In the same way, there were no significant differences between SNP-3.0 and CON on markers for liver and kidney functions. As no adverse effects were observed with the drug in an overdose oral toxicity test, this study suggests that the drug was identified as a safe agent in pigs administered with three times the recommended dose.