In veterinary medicine, anaesthesia is fundamental for many medical acts, as complementary tests or surgical procedures. This discipline has evolved enormously in recent years, both in terms of practices as well as in terms of materials and used molecules.The aim of the present study was to compare three anaesthetic protocols, using injectable anaesthesia Ketamine/xylazine/acepromazine, ketamine/xylazine, and ketamine/xylazine /meloxicam in rabbits. Nine adult males, Neo-Zealand breed rabbits, weighing between 2.5 and 3.5 Kg were randomly divided into three groups, housed indoor to accommodate the place of experiments to evaluate their effects on risk factors associated with peri-anaesthetic mortality, along with gastrointestinal complications, in order to establish a suitable anaesthetic protocol, coupled with continuous monitoring of the anaesthetized animal. The association of acepromazine, xylazine, and ketamine, which give a deep myorelaxation and remarkable analgesia, obtained the anaesthesia. Fixed products do not lead to any myorelaxation of the mandibular muscles. The addition of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug increased the effect of the peri-anaesthetic analgesia. The protocol using acepromazine, xylazine, and ketamine is the best schema for the potentiated general anaesthesia in rabbit, because of its insignificant effect on the intestinal motility.
Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infection, one of a major foodborne disease remains considerable public health concerns globally. In this study, we have constructed that the genetically inactivated SE ghost vaccine candidate, JOL2220 (Δlon ΔcpxR Δasd), which express the immunogenic hemagglutinin portion (HA1) of H1N1 virus on the Salmonella surface. The lysis gene cassette, holin-endolysin system originated from double DNA bacteriophage λ was cloned into the ghost vector plasmid pJHL464, which activated under the control of the convergent promoter system. Scanning electronic microscopic examination revealed that transmembrane tunnels of JOL2220 was formed following the 48 hr of the lysis mediated by the holin-endolysin system. In vitro expression of HA1 antigenic protein was also determined by Western blot analysis. The Chickens immunized with JOL2220 ghost via intramuscular and oral routes showed significant increase in IgG level against both SE and HA1 antigen. Further, we observed markedly enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation and T-cell differentiation in the primed PBMC of the immunized chicken, compared to those in the control group. Collectively, the results indicated that the SE ghosts expressing HA1 antigen may have immunostimulatory properties against Salmonella and influenza infection where the chicken is the predominant reservoir.
This study investigated the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, Salmonella (S.) typhimurium and Escherichia (E.) coli O157:H7, and skin irritation in New Zealand white rabbits using methanol extracts of Curcuma (C.) aromatica Salisb. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of C. aromatica extracts against S. aureus, S. typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 was 0.250, 0.250 and 0.125 mg/ml, respectively, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts against S. aureus, S. typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 was 0.50, 0.50, 0.250 mg/ml, correspondingly. From the skin irritation test, extremely minor erythema and very slight edema were formed at 24 h after application of the extracts on the skin on abraded lesions of 2 and 1 rabbits, respectively. The primary irritation index score was estimated to be 0.13 indicating non-irritation. In conclusion, this study suggests that C. aromatica extract has the antibacterial activity against major food-borne pathogens and is not irritant to skin.
Baicalin is a flavonoid compound with many advantages, including anti-inflammatory agents and antioxidants. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin that induces neuronal damage through inflammatory response and oxidative stress reaction. This study was investigated the protective effects of baicalin on the oxidative stress and histopathological changes caused by LPS in hippocampus. Adult mice were divided into four groups; vehicle-treated, baicalin-treated, LPS-treated, and LPS and baicalin co-treated animals. Baicalin (10 mg/kg/day) and/or LPS (250 μg/kg/day) were intraperitoneally administered for seven consecutive days, and body weight was measured. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and lipid peroxidation level in the hippocampus were examined. Histopathological study was performed using hematoxylin and eosin staining manuals. LPS treatment decreased body weight and increased ROS and oxidative stress in the hippocampus. However, co-treatment with baicalin alleviated these changes caused by LPS. Severe histopathological changes were observed in the hippocampus of LPS-treated animals. Baicalin co-treatment attenuated the changes and preserved neuronal cells from LPS damage. These results showed that baicalin suppresses LPS-induced neuronal damage by alleviating oxidative stress in the hippocampus. Thus, this study demonstrated that baicalin exerts protective effects against LPS-induced oxidative stress in hippocampus.
This study examined the spatial autocorrelation of the 2016 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in South Chungcheong to determine the association between the disease epidemics and pig farm vehicle movements. Two spatial autocorrelation testing methods were used: Moran’s I and Getis-Ord G statistics. The Moran’s I statistic for the FMD outbreak areas was -0.239, and its p-value was less than 0.007. The median Getis-Ord G statistic for the FMD outbreak areas was -0.323. The results indicated that the geographical distribution of the FMD outbreak areas was not spatially homogeneous. The spatial autocorrelation of the 2016 FMD epidemics was considered by applying a geographical weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) model in the analysis, in which pig farm vehicle movements were used as risk factors for the 2016 FMD epidemics. The number of FMD-infected farms per second-level administrative province (si or gun) was used as a dependent variable. The number of farm vehicle movements within the province (within variable), from one province to other provinces (outbound variable), or from other provinces to one province (inbound variable), were included as independent variables in the GWPR model. The results of the GWPR model were as follows. The estimated median coefficient of the log-transformed within variable, the log-transformed outbound variable, and log-transformed inbound variable were -0.000, 0.010, and -0.009, respectively. The optimal bandwidth for the GWPR model was 80.49, and the AIC score was 89.35. The results showed that the GWPR model would provide an understanding of the relationship between the 2016 FMD epidemics and pig farm vehicle movements
In this study, antibody responses after vaccination against equine influenza were investigated among 1,591 horses in the Republic of Korea using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Equine influenza has not occurred since 2011 and a commercial vaccine against H3N8 has been used. The equine influenza virus, A/equine/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8), was used as the antigen in the HI assay. The mean seropositive rate was 90.5% in 2019. Except for stallion whose seropositive rate was 78.5%, all seropositive rates of other horse types were over 90%. Regionally, except for Gangwon-do and Jeju-do whose seropositive rates were 89.0% and 87.1%, all seropositive rates in other provinces were over 90%. In the future, more through vaccination against equine influenza needs to be done based on this investigation result.
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes respiratory disease in birds and mammals, including pigs and humans. Infection by IAV in pigs increases not only economic losses in the swine industry but also the emergence of novel IAV variants via gene reassortment, which is important due to the susceptibility of both birds and humans to IAV. This study provides serological data obtained during a study to detect IAV infections in pigs in the Republic of Korea during 2018 and 2019. A total of 1,559 samples were collected from 74 domestic pig farms. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were performed using the A/Swine/Korea/25-13(H1N1), A/Swine/Korea/E102 (H1N2), and A/Swine/Korea/Cy10/2007 (H3N2) viruses as antigens. The HI assay results showed that 266 of the 1,559 samples were seropositive (17.0%). Among these, H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 comprised 7.3% (114), 6.0% (93), and 8.8% (137) of the 1,559 samples, respectively. Co-infections of H1N1/H1N2, H1N1/H3N2, H1N2/H3N2 and H1N1/H1N2/H3N2 were observed in 2.1% (31), 1.5% (23), 1.5% (24), and 0.8% (13) of the 1,559 samples, respectively. Interestingly, IAV infections were detected in all nine provinces of the country.
Porcine parvovirus 2 (PPV2) was recently detected in the Republic of Korea. This paper reports two near-complete genome sequences of PPV2 identified for the first time in the lung tissue of aborted pig fetuses.
Canine parvovirus (CPV) remains a leading infectious cause of death in canines, especially in young puppies. Though vaccination is being carried out regularly, immunization failures occur, and puppies may be exposed to infection. Virus-like particles (VLPs) act like a subunit vaccine, mimicking the structure of authentic viruses. Therefore, VLPs have the potential to be used as vaccine candidates. Since Viral Protein 2 (VP2), a major structural protein of CPV, is the crucial antigen for CPV, the purpose of this study was to produce a recombinant VP2 of new canine parvovirus-2a using the baculovirus expression system in SF9 insect cells. The results revealed that recombinant VP2 assembles to form VLPs with antigenic properties similar to those of natural CPV, the recombinant VLP can produce a hemagglutination assay (HA) titer (1:210) in SF9 cells. Expression of the recombinant 6-His-tagged VP2 in SF9 cells was confirmed by western blotting. These findings suggest that the recombinant VP2 expressed in this study could be used as an efficient subunit vaccine against CPV infection.