Colorectal cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality that accounts for over 9% of all incidences of cancer. Additionally, colorectal cancer is widely recognized as an environmental disease related to ill-defined cultural, social and lifestyle factors including physical activity, obesity, cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol consumption. Accordingly, natural phytochemicals and extracts have attracted attention because of their beneficial biological effects. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a common supplementary medicine applied to increase bioenergetic capacity in various diseases. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether CoQ10 treatment has any inhibitory effects and its related cellular mechanisms in human colon cancer HCT116 cells. A MTT assay revealed that CoQ10 slightly decreased the proliferation of HCT116 cells; however, glutathione- and superoxide dismutase- activity were unchanged in response to CoQ10 treatment. A DCF-DA assay revealed that CoQ10 slightly increased ROS release of HCT116 cells. However, in a nitric oxide (NO) assay, CoQ10 significantly increased NO production in a dose-dependent manner. The results of western blot analysis revealed that the protein levels of Bax, p21 and p53 were increased, whereas the protein level of Bcl2 was decreased suggesting that the CoQ10-mediated inhibitory mechanism is associated with apoptotic signaling. Taken together, our findings indicate that CoQ10 has an inhibitory effect on the growth of colon cancer cells via NO production that is associated with regulation of factors involved in apoptotic signaling including Bax, Bcl2, p21 and p53.
Eighty pigs (40 pigs per farm aged 40 days old) that had been raised on two commercial pig farms A and B were used to evaluate oxidative stress status. The results from each farm were compared to investigate a relationship between pig performance and oxidative stress status. Pig performance on farm A was relatively better than that on farm B for the period of 3 years.
The level of plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) of the pigs in group 1 (farm A) was significantly higher (p=0.045<0.05 ) than that of the pigs in group 2 (farm B). The level of plasma total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) value of the pigs in group 2 were significantly higher (p= 0.045<0.05 and p=0.001<0.05) than those of the pigs in group 1 These results revealed that pig performance was associated inversely with oxidative stress status.
The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of ozone in sanitizing water experimentally inoculated with the gram-positive food-poisoning bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The bactericidal effect was measured after experimentally inoculated solutions were exposed to 0, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm ozone at several time points and different temperatures, in the presence of varying concentrations of different organic matter, namely, fetal bovine serum (FBS) or cattle liver. Results revealed inhibition of the bactericidal effect in the presence of the lowest percentage of FBS, but a lower extent of the inhibition occurred when liver was used as the organic matter. It was also apparent that a higher temperature and shorter ozone exposure time had led to a more reduced bactericidal efficacy than that under a lower temperature and longer ozone exposure. This study provides insight into the potential use of ozonated water as an effective and safe disinfectant in an abattoir setting.
A reliable and selective liquid chromatography–ultraviolet detection method for determination of antiprotozoals (selamectin, doramectin and fenbendazol) has been described. HPLC separation of active constituents was achieved on various C18 columns using methanol, acetonitrile, 0.1% phosphoric acid, acetic acid and distilled water as mobile phase, with UV detection at 243, 245 and 224 nm. The analytical procedure has been successfully identified. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, repeatability and intermediated precision. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R2 of 0.9999) within the concentrations ranges (0~200, 0~200 and 50~400 μg/mL). The accuracy and repeatability showed 99%, 100%, 100% and below 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, respectively. The precision tests conducted for 3 days in three different concentrations with standard also revealed below 3.5%, 2.4% and 2.7%. The method has also been applied successfully to monitor post-market 5 veterinary products of which active ingredient are selamectin, doramectin and fenbendazol. There were no non-compliant products.
In this study, we used a choropleth map to explore the spatial variation of the risk of cattle herds being bovine tuberculosis (BTB) positive in Gangwon-do in 2015. The map shows that the risk of being BTB-positive was lower in provinces located in the middle of Gangwon-do (Wonju, Youngwol, Peongchang, and Kangneung) than in other provinces. In addition, one province located in the north (Goseong) had a low risk of BTB. The estimate for the intercept of the spatial lag model was 0.66, and the spatial autocorrelation coefficient (lambda) was 0.20 (Table 1). The Moran’s I was 0.33 with p-value of 0.02. In 2015, provinces located in the North West (Hwacheon) and East (Donghae) of Gangwon-do had a higher BTB risk. We identified some specific provinces at low BTB-positive risk, information that may prove useful for control of BTB in the study area.
This study evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of different concentrations of ozonated water with organic matter, fetal bovine serum, at different concentrations and incubation times with bacteria. In the absence of organic matter, total eradication of up to 5 log of Escherichia (E.) coli was achieved, however, interference by organic matter led to inefficiency of ozonated water as a disinfecting agent. In addition, diminishing antimicrobial effects at higher temperatures, even in the absence of organic matter, were also demonstrated. These findings indicate that ozonated water will be a safe and effective disinfectant agent that could be useful in meat processing, especially an intestine processing, in Korean slaughter houses.
Reanalysis using the US Food and Drug Administration Hazard Analysis method was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the current Critical Control Point (CCP) configuration for non-thermal processes such as meat packaging plants and butcher shops. During non-heat treatment processing without the process of removing or reducing contaminated microorganisms, it is necessary to set and control the incoming material inspection step with the CCP since this step is essential to prevent the inflow of contaminants through incoming materials. The temperature control of the final product storage refrigerated room can be managed by the prerequisite program. However, the CCP setting of the refrigerated room prior to shipment of the meat packaging plant in which the cold chain system should be maintained in the following distribution stage is recognized. It is not an effective method to install a metal detector and manage it with CCP for metal hazard control. Improving hygienic cleaning guidelines and enhancing hygiene training are proactive and effective measures against metal particle contamination.
The study was conducted to investigate the effects of feed withdrawal on gastrointestinal weight, digestive condition, and carcass yield. The effects were studied in 36 HANWOO and 245 pigs. The weight of the gastrointestinal tract decreased with fasting time in both HANWOO and pigs. No significant differences in weight of HANWOO stomachs, intestinal tracts, and carcass yields were observed throughout the experimentals. Among pigs, significant differences in gastrointestinal tract weight were observed when comparing short fasting time (4 h) with long fasting time (above 12 h) (p<0.05). HANWOO and pigs showed no significant differences in carcass yield during fasting times. These results suggested that feed withdrawal for 16 and 12 hours is appropriate for HANWOO and pigs.