The canine parvovirus (CPV) causes clinical signs, such as severe enteritis, dehydration, diarrhea, vomiting, leukopenia, and hair loss, which may lead to death. Vaccination is still the most important approach, as no specific treatment exists to prevent CPV. Monoclonal antibodies are valuable tools to study the pathogenic mechanisms of CPV and develop effective diagnostic reagents and pharmaceuticals. In this study, two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against CPV-2a were obtained through hybridoma technology by fusing myeloma cells and B cells from the spleens of mice immunized with CPV type 2a (CPV-2a). Two MAbs (CPV-330 and CPV-620) were studied on the reactivity of vaccine (CPV-2a) and field strains (CPV-new 2a, -2b, and -2c) by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), hemagglutination inhibition test (HI), virus neutralization test (VN), and inhibition of virus growth test. Two MAbs showed similar antibody titers for HI and VN. On the other hand, CPV-330 inhibited the viral replication in Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells better than CPV-620. These CPV MAbs may provide valuable biological reagents to study the CPV pathogenic mechanisms and work as therapeutic antibodies.
Swine atrophic rhinitis is a respiratory disease that causes nasal turbinate loss and septal deformation due to Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida. Turbinate loss facilitates pathogens to infect lungs, which leads to various respiratory diseases and productivity reduction. In this study, descriptive analysis was implemented for atrophic rhinitis and pneumonia. From 6 pig farms shipped to slaughterhouses in Chungbuk province, 20 heads and 20 lungs were collected by each farm from March 2020 to September 2020. Their atrophic rhinitis lesions and lung lesions were scored and blood samples were also collected to test the seroprevalence of several respiratory diseases. Pasteurella multocida from nasal swab was cultured and antibiotic resistance tests were performed. Correlation between atrophic rhinitis scores and lung lesion scores was not found. Abdominal nasal lesions were more severe than dorsal lesions. Differences in lung lesion scores were relatively small between lobes. The score of pneumonia was higher in castrated pigs than in female pigs. There was no relationship between lesion score and seroprevalence of respiratory diseases. Antibiotic resistance levels for Pasteurella multocida differed by farm, and several antibiotics were not effective. The results of this study imply that antimicrobial susceptibility tests are highly recommended before administration.
The leaves of Allium victorialis (AV) are known an edible perennial herb, which has been used in Korean traditional medicine. However, the beneficial pharmacological effects of AV extracts (AVE) on the antioxidant activity and atopic dermatitis (AD) have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate both antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effect of AVE on AD in vitro and in vivo. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by total polyphenol content and ferric reducing ability. AVE showed a level of polyphenol content and reducing power activity. The five-week-old BALB/c mice were used as an AD-like mouse model by treating them with 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB). Topical administration of AVE for 3 weeks to DNCB-treated mice significantly alleviated clinical skin lesion dermatitis severity and epidermal thickness. Histopathological analysis also demonstrated that AVE decreased eosinophil and mast cell infiltration into skin and ear tissue. These results suggest that topical application of AVE inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesion in mice by their antioxidant activity. Thus, AVE may be a potential therapeutic agent for AD.
Canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) is a major etiological agent causing gastrointestinal enteritis in domestic and wild carnivores. Since the emergence of CPV-2 in the late 1970s, subtypes CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c have spread worldwide. CPV-2 prevalence differed according to region and season. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of CPV-2 infection in Korea. Samples were collected from 536 dog feces in animal shelters and 225 necropsied intestinal tissues of dog carcasses submitted in the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (APQA) for diagnostic purposes from 2016 to 2020 in Korea. Among the 761 samples, 181 (23.8%) were positive for the following subtypes: CPV-2a (n=138), CPV-2c (n=16), CPV-2b (n=14), and CPV-2 (n=2). Feline parvovirus (n=2) and co-infection with CPV-2a and CPV-2c (n=1) were also detected. There was no significant difference in the regional distribution of CPV-2 in Korea, which is prevalent in winter. This result shows the prevalence of CPV-2 according to various environments in Korea and will be useful in establishing an effective prevention strategy against CPV-2 that reflects the situation in Korea with continuous monitoring.
The epidemiological associations between poultry farm biosecurity measures and the 2016/18 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemics were evaluated using a multivariate logistic model. In the model, 11 biosecurity measures were used as independent variables in the model: a security fence to keep wild birds out of the farm, a security gate on the farm, a farm signboard, number of footbaths for disinfecting footwear, number of anterooms, U-shaped disinfection farm gate, a tunnel-shaped disinfection farm gate, a high-pressure disinfectant fogging farm gate, disinfectant booth for farm workers and visitors, high-pressure disinfectant sprayer in the farm, and personnel disinfectant sprayer in the farm. Two hundred and eighty-eight poultry farms (144 HPAI-confirmed and 144 non-confirmed) were used as the dependent variable. The numbers of footbaths and anterooms were converted to a categorical measurement format using a general additive model. The likelihood of an HPAI outbreak in a poultry farm with a fence to prevent contact between wild birds and domestic fowl was less than that of farms without a fence (OR: 0.54, P value: 0.01). The Akaike information criterion score of the multivariate model (370.91) was less than that of the univariate logistic model for each biosecurity measure. From an HPAI control perspective, it is recommended for poultry farmers to construct a wild bird-proof fence to decrease the HPAI outbreak risk.
This study investigated chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) residues in milk of intramuscularly dosed dairy cows and established the withdrawal time (WT) of CPM in milk. Sixteen healthy Holstein cows were injected with 10 (CPM-1) and 20 mL (CPM-2) of the drug containing 4 mg/mL of CPM, respectively. After administration of CPM, milk samples were collected from all cows at 12 hour intervals for 5 days. CPM residue concentrations in milk were determined using LC-MS/MS. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was 0.9956, and the limits of detection and quantification (LOQ) were 0.6 and 1.0 μg/kg, respectively. Recoveries ranged between 98.5-115.0%, and coefficient of variations were less than 10.96%. After treatment, CPM in CPM-1 and CPM-2 was detected below the LOQ in all milk samples at 12 hours. According to the European Medicines Agency’s guideline on determination of withdrawal periods for milk, withdrawal periods of both CPM-1 and CPM-2 in milk were established to 12 hours. In conclusion, the developed analytical method is sensitive and reliable for detection of CPM in milk, and the estimated WT of CPM in bovine milk will contribute to ensuring the safety of milk.
Based on many previous studies, this study reviewed the effects of needle-free intradermal injection (NFI) on the prevention of the incidence of lesions at the injection site in pork from pigs vaccinated with the foot-and-mouth disease vaccine, the reduction of the vaccine dose, the stress-relief of vaccination, and the reduction of farm worker-related injuries. The vaccine and drugs injected with the NFI pass through the tissue and are widely dispersed along the path of least resistance, resulting in a vastly dispersed, spider-web-like distribution of the medication and absorbed quickly. In addition, since NFI is inoculated into the dermal layer where immune cells are abundantly distributed, even a small amount of vaccination shows an antibody-forming effect similar to that of the conventional needle intramuscular injection. NFI is a method suitable for animal welfare because the vaccine or drug is widely dispersed over the inoculation site and causes less pain or stress than the needle intramuscular injection. Use of NFI system for the vaccination and drug delivery improves work efficiency in farms and reduces the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders in farm workers. In the future, it is judged that in-depth studies are needed on the effect of improving productivity and reducing the dose of antibiotics through NFI.
This study investigated changes of milk production in dairy cows intramuscularly injected with drugs containing dexamethasone (DXM). Three types of dexamethasone formulations (Bueunde® (DXM 0.5 mg/mL), Dexason INJ.® (DXM 1 mg/mL) and Dexolone-20 inj.® (DXM 1 mg/mL)) were intramuscularly injected into sixteen healthy dairy cows each. Bueunde® was intramuscularly injected into 8 dairy cows with 5 mg (BED-1) and 10 mg (BED-2) of DXM once a day for 3 consecutive days, respectively. Dexason INJ.® was intramuscularly administered once into dairy cows with 20 mg (DXS-1, n=8) and 40 mg (DXS-2, n=8) of DXM, respectively. Dexolone-20 inj.® was intramuscularly injected once into dairy cows with 20 mg (DXS-1, n=8) and 40 mg (DXS-2, n=8) of DXM, respectively. Milk production (MP) of BED-1 and BED-2 significantly decreased during the drug administration and up to 48-hour post-drug treatment. Compared with the MP before drug administration, the MP of DXS-1 and DXL-1 was meaningfully decreased by 36 and 24-hour post-drug administration, respectively, and that in both DXS-2 and DXL-2 significantly decreased until 48-hour post-drug treatment. In conclusion, it was confirmed that the MP temporarily decreased by 48 hours after administration of DXM to dairy cows.