According to the regulations of the Korean Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (QIA), offals include a greater diversity of internal organs than do those of other nations. The present study was conducted to investigate the microbiological quality of diverse edible offal products from pig and cattle slaughterhouses in Korea by performing aerobic plate counts (APCs) and E. coli counts. There were significant differences in E. coli values between red offal and white offal in both pigs and cattle. Significant differences in APCs were also observed between partial red offal and white offal of pigs (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences in APCs between red offal and white offal of cattle. The most frequently detected foodborne pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus (5.6% prevalence in pig offal and 12.5% % prevalence in cattle offal) followed by Clostridium perfringens (11.1 and 7.1%, respectively) and Salmonella (5.6% and 7.1%, respectively). None of the offal samples tested positive for E. coli O157:H7.
This study was conducted to identify suitable experimental conditions for the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay, after which the assay was employed using 11 substances listed in the OECD test guideline (TG) 437. The opacity of the corneas was checked on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 10 after extraction. The only day 1 showed the opacity of below 7 (limit value), which indicated the corneas have to be used in a day after extraction. The treatment time of test substances was evaluated at 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min to determine the opacity, permeability and IVIS values. Suitable IVIS values were observed at 5, 10, and 15 min. Two culture temperature conditions, 25°C and 32°C, had similar IVIS values. The washing method suggested in the OECD TG 437 resulted in the most suitable IVIS value. Based on the established conditions, the BCOP assay was conducted using the 11 substances listed in OECD TG 437, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy matched those in the guidelines for all test substances. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that suitable domestic conditions for BCOP assay as an alternative eye irritation method were established. The results presented herein will be useful to future studies of other Korean alternative researches.
In this study, the virucidal efficacy of a fumigant (35% paraformaldehyde) against avian influenza virus (AIV) was examined. After AIV suspensions had been deposited on stainless steel carriers, the dried carriers were exposed to the fumigant in a 300-m3 test room for 3 h. Thereafter, all carriers were submerged in a neutralizing solution to scrape off the surviving viruses, and the respective suspensions were diluted. Each dilution factor was respectively inoculated into the allantoic membrane of five 10-day-old embryos. After incubation, AIV viability in the collected allantoic fluids was examined and the EID50 was calculated. The fumigant inactivated ≥5.7log10EID50 of AIV and was nontoxic to the embryos.
Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) induced necrotic enteritis (NE) and related subclinical disease has become economically significant problems for the broiler industry. The objectives of this study were to determine the toxinotype and the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. perfringens isolated from the intestine of NE-suspicious and clinically healthy chickens in Korea. All of the 110 isolates belong to C. perfringens type A. In addition, these strains harbored the luxS, colA, virS, cpb2, netB and tpeL genes in high percentage order. They do not harbor the cpe gene encoding enterotoxin production. Our results suggest the important roles of the several toxin genes in the pathogenesis of NE except α-toxin, previously thought to be the major virulence factor. In the antimicrobial susceptibility test of 13 antimicrobial agents, none of them is completely susceptible in this study. Remarkably NE-suspicious chickens have higher resistant value than health ones in all of antimicrobial agents. The presence of tetracycline-resistance genes were also tested to analyze the correlation of genotype and phenotype.
The squid Todarodes pacificus is a commercially important fishery species in East Asia. As East Asians consume raw or lightly cooked squids, there has been growing concern about parasitic infections associated with squid consumption. In the current study, five squids caught in the East Sea were sampled for parasitological research from the biggest fishery market in Seoul, Republic of Korea. They were dissected and examined for parasites using a light microscope. Proteocephalus sp. was isolated and identified using field emission scanning electron microscopy, PCR, and sequencing. Given that Proteocephalus spp. can be affected by water temperature and geographical characteristics, further research on Proteocephalus spp. with respect to changes in water temperature in the East Sea is important.