Motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS) mostly caused by Aeromonas hydrophila is a disease of high economic impact in freshwater organism. This study examined the seroconversion and seroprotection of formalinised local isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila in the Clarias gariepinus administered via different routes. Highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila was treated with 40v/v formalin for 24 h. Bacterin was suspended to 0.5 McFarland standard and utilized to immunize Clarias gariepinus of 400±20 g in three groups with 50 samples each via three routes of administration. Antibody measurement taken at regular intervals before and after vaccination revealed a significantly higher antibody values in all routes compared to the control and difference was noticed at all intervals. Relative percent survival was 71.43, 62.86 and 57.14 intraperitoneal, intramuscular and immersion routes, respectively. Correlation analysis established a strong and direct relationship in the antibody generation through route of administration and efficacy of vaccine. This local vaccine was able to confer a high degree of immunity on Clarias gariepinus and can therefore be used to vaccinate against MAS.
Epidemiological research to investigate the spatial characteristics of poultry farms confirmed with avian influenza (AI) infection can help increase the efficacy of AI surveillance as well as AI control strategies. The spatial characteristics of poultry farms confirmed with AI infection can provide insights on effective AI-surveillance and AI-control strategies to policymakers by providing a visualization of the geographical pattern of AI distribution. The goal of the current study was to investigate the spatial characteristics of the risk of a farm being AI-positive by using data from routine AI-surveillance performed during the period 2014–2015. To achieve this goal, we applied a spatial model because it improves the estimation of the relative risk by taking into account spatial dependence between epidemiological units. The results revealed there was a lack of dependency between districts in the risk of a farm being AI-positive. The estimates for the spatial autocorrelation coefficient in the spatial model for chicken farms were 0.006 in 2014 (p = 0.9496) and -0.064 in 2015 (p = 0.6052) and for duck farms were -0.066 in 2014 (p = 0.4380) and 0.047 in 2015. Likewise, Moran’s I statistic estimates for chicken farms were 0.0243 in 2014 (p = 0.3183) and -0.0174 in 2015 (p = 0.5657) and for duck farms were -0.0342 in 2014 (p = 0.6678) and -0.0230 in 2015.
BALB/c mice were vaccinated with Brucella (B.) abortus recombinant protein L27 (50S ribosomal protein L27) cloned into a pMal vector system. L27 was induced, purified and injected intraperitoneally (IP). Mice were vaccinated on 0-, 15- and 35-day. Serum cytokines were evaluated on 36- and 49-day from first vaccination. Mice were intraperitoneally infected with 5×104 CFU of virulent B. abortus 544 on day-50 and sacrificed after two weeks from infection. Bacterial burden from the spleen was quantified and showed a 0.7- and 0.9-log reduction in vaccinated mice in comparison to PBS and MBP (maltose binding protein) groups respectively. Cytokines in the serum demonstrated increased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). On the other hand, interleukin 10 (IL-10) was attenuated in the sera of vaccinated mice. This cytokine profile is indicative of a cell-mediated type of immune response which is favorable for the eradication of intracellular infections. The current study showed the potential of another B. abortus ribosomal protein in inducing protective immunity against B. abortus infection.
Despite the various effects on the health of Chamaecyparis obtusa essential oil (COEO), an adverse effect on the skin has recently been reported. Therefore, in this study, the skin sensitization test of COEO was conducted to confirm the skin safety of the essential oil by the guinea pig maximization test. Guinea pigs were sensitized with intradermal injection of 0.1ml COEO for 24 h. After 1 week, 5% of COEO was treated on the site of injection and 2% of the essential oil was challenged 2 weeks later. The average skin reaction evaluated by erythema and edema on the challenge sites and sensitization rate in the COEO-treatment group at 24 h were 0.0 and 0%, respectively, which are substantially low compared with in the 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-treatment group (positive control group) (average skin reaction: 3.0, sensitization rate: 100%) and identical with in the olive oil-treatment group (negative control group), representing a weak sensitizing potential. The average skin reaction and sensitization rate observed at 48 h were 0.0 and 0% in the COEO-treatment group, respectively, and 2.0 and 100% in the positive control group, respectively. It was concluded that 5% of COEO classified to Grade I, induced no sensitization when tested in guinea pigs.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of replicating as undifferentiated cells, and have the potential of differentiating into mesodermal lineages. Goats are commonly used as animal models for bone tissue engineering to test the potential of stem cells for bone regeneration. Goat MSCs isolated from bone marrow (BM) or adipose tissue (AD) should be evaluated using in vitro assays, prior to their application in a tissue engineering project. In this study, we compared the stem cell properties of MSCs derived from goat AD, BM and ear skin tissue (ESK). As results, BM and ESK-MSCs exhibited a spindle-shaped morphology comparable to that of AD-MSCs. Especially, BM-MSCs could be cultured for significantly longer periods and exhibited the greatest expansion capacity, whereas AD-MSCs had the shortest culture time and lowest growth rate. Also, we compared differentiation potentials of AD, BM and ESK-MSCs into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages through specific staining and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Collectively, we successfully isolated ESK-MSCs from goat for the first time. This study suggests that adult skin tissue of goat could be used as a source of goat MSCs. Further studies are needed to show the more information for establishment and fully characterization of goat ESK-MSCs.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of differentiating into mesenchymal tissue such as bone, cartilage, muscle, and adipose, and have been isolated and characterized from various species. Deer adipose tissue-derived MSCs (dAD-MSCs) have not been studied and deer bone marrow-derived MSCs (dBM-MSCs) have not been fully characterized. In this study, we firstly isolated MSCs from deer tissues and then compared characteristics of dAD-MSCs and dBM-MSCs. dAD-MSCs and dBM-MSCs exhibited significant increase in proliferation under low-glucose DMEM culture condition during 20 and 10 passages consecutive passages, respectively. Both cells expressed cell surface markers such as CD73, CD90, and CD105, but did not express CD34 and CD45. Two types of cells expressed stemness markers (Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog) and exhibited differentiation potential into mesodermal lineages. Both cells exhibited osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential, but poor adipogenic differentiation potential. Specifically, dAD-MSCs have a greater capacity for chondrogenic differentiation potential compared to dBM-MSCs. Collectively, we successfully isolated dAD-MSCs from deer for the first time. This study suggests that adipose tissue of deer could be used as a source of deer MSCs.
Because some coat colors other than white and yellowish-brown are not accepted by the Jindo dog Standard, this study was conducted investigate population size for pertaining to the coat color of Jindo dogs except white and yellow-brown, the natural monument of korea during 2018. It was investigated, there were 130 black Jindo (four-eyed) dogs, 32 tiger-striped Jindo dogs, 24 black Jindo (all black) dogs , 19 grey (pepper-and-salt) Jindo dogs and 1 spotted Jindo dog in Jindo area. The coat colors Jindo dogs should not be limited to yellow and white in the breed standard, and Jindo dogs should be judged not by their coat color but by their noble characteristics. Such analyses of population size of coat colors Jindo dogs could be applied as important fundamental data for conservation and management of endangered coat colors in Jindo dogs.
Fowl typhoid (FT) is a septicemic disease caused by Salmonella Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum) and is responsible for severe economic losses in Korea. In this study, 49 aminoglycosides (AMG)-resistant S. Gallinarum were analyzed to determine the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Thirty-six (73.5%) out of 49 AMG-resistant S. Gallinarum exhibited resistance to at least one agent in three or more of antimicrobial categories as multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. Among the AMG-resistant isolates exhibiting MDR, 21 (58.3%) and 11 (30.6%) of the isolates harbored ant(2")-I, which encodes an aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase, and blaTEM-1, which is a β-lactamase-encoding gene, respectively. The qnrB, cmlA, and sul1 and sul2 genes, which are related to resistance to quinolones, chloramphenicol and sulfonamides, respectively, were detected in 8.3~22.2% of the AMG-resistant isolates that exhibited MDR. Twenty-four (66.6%) of 36 AMG-resistance S. Gallinarum exhibiting MDR carried class 1 integrons with aadA genes cassettes. Several plasmid replicon types, such as B/O, FIIA, FIB, and Frep were considered to play a prominent role in S. Gallinarum, and the presence of these genetic characteristics remain a serious concern to the selection of antimicrobials for the treatment of FT.
A 2-month-old Turkish Angora cat presented with multiple skin masses after first vaccination and spot-on antiparasitic treatment. There was no hair loss or pruritis, and tests revealed negative for the feline leukemia and immunodeficiency viruses. Biopsy revealed densely packed eosinophils in sparse dermal tissue with a few mast cells. These lesions did not respond promptly to prednisolone treatment, but they regressed without relapse over the following month, despite sequential vaccinations and anti-parasitic treatment. The present case is interesting considering the rarity of multiple eosinophilic granuloma development in a very young cat with a recent history of vaccination and antiparasitic treatment.
The widespread emergence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli is now being seen in humans and animals, and there is an increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli on a global. In this study, 31 MDR E. coli isolates recovered from pork meat at retail markets were analyzed to determine the phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The resistance to ampicillin (30 isolates, 96.8%) and tetracycline (28 isolates, 90.3%) were the most frequent among the MDR E. coli isolates. Thirty (96.8%) of MDE E. coli isolates harbored the ß-lactamase–encoding gene blaTEM. Twenty-six (83.9%) isolates harbored a class 1 integron, and 30 (96.8%) isolates carried from 2 to 6 resistance genes. Frep (45.2%) and FIB (22.6%) replicons were most common on the replicon typing. This study suggests that monitoring of the antimicrobial resistance of the pathogens found in pork meat should be continued in the future due to concerns about food safety issues.