Bioenergetics has been defined as the biology of energy transformations and energy exchanges within and between living organisms and their environment; this field now includes the concept of bioenergetic medicine, e.g., therapeutic approaches involving biophotons. QELBY® powder is a patented quantum energy-radiating material (patent No. 10-1172018), to be precise, a biologically active silicon dioxide-containing mineral powder that radiates reductive energy in infrared wavelength. In this study, we examined possible biological effects of indirect contact with QELBY® powder on various mammalian cell lines derived from macrophagic (MØ) and nonmacrophagic cells, including Raw 264.7 (mouse-derived MØ cell line), HD11 (chicken-derived MØ cell line), and HeLa (human cervical cancer cell line). Our comparison among the cells with and without indirect contact with QELBY® powder showed that this indirect contact significantly (i) increased the mitochondrial membrane potential (up to 1.36-fold) regardless of the cell type (p < 0.05), (ii) decreased the intracellular concentration of ATP in HeLa cells but not in the MØ-derived cells (p < 0.05), and (iii) protected DNA from damage during oxidative stress according to a standard comet assay (single-cell alkaline gel electrophoresis). Taken together, these results imply that indirect contact with QELBY® powder can make cells more metabolically active by increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential and by alleviating DNA damage caused by oxidative stress.
Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have antimicrobial effects but there are few data on its effects against fish pathogenic bacteria. This study was conducted for possible development of natural food antimicrobials from garlic extracts, particularly allicin. The filter sterilized, aqueous extract of garlic was tested for its ability to inhibit the growth of 7 fish pathogenic bacteria (E. tarda, V. ichthyoenteri, V. harveyi, P. damselae, S. iniae, S. parauberis, L. garviae) using the disc diffusion test, minimum inhibitory concentration test, and minimum bacteriocidal concentration test. The garlic extract inhibited growth and killed most of the organisms tested. The disc diffusion test was performed using garlic extracts (100%, 50%, 25%, 10%, each 20㎍), and MIC test was also performed using a diluted concentration of garlic extracts (488 - 250,000 ㎍/㎖). According to the results, garlic extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against all of seven bacteria, and these results suggest that this garlic extract can be used as an antimicrobial substance against fish bacterial diseases in the fish industry.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells, which can be induced to differentiate into several cells. MSCs are also reported to possess immunomodulatory properties through secretion of inflammatory cytokines and generation of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Treg cells play an important role in allergic disorders, including atopic dermatitis. We examined the immunomodulatory effects of canine adipose tissue derived-MSCs (cAD-MSCs) in 3 groups: Group 1, untreated normal dog; Group 2, dogs with Dermatophagoides farinae ointment-induced atopic dermatitis; and Group 3, dogs with atopic dermatitis. Canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from each group and co-cultured with cAD-MSCs. After co-culturing, PBMCs were separated and the expression of Treg cells was examined by flow cytometry. According to the results, the populations of Treg cells were increased in 3 ex vivo experimental groups, co-cultured with cAD-MSCs. These results would be important for the application of MSCs in clinical trials.
In this study, we described a suitable prioritisation scheme on these exempted drugs and established fundamental rules for residue monitoring enforcement in Korea. The principles of exempted materials were established. Based on these established criteria, 75 materials with high priority were selected and grouped. Among these materials, we have decided that 25 substances required further review for monitoring. Important factors for determining the priority for monitoring, product factor during the recent 4 years, veterinary medicine factors, including applied symptoms and component conditions, animal factors, including applied animals, and toxicological factors including acceptable daily intake (ADI), establishment of residual quantity permitted (MRL) or withdrawal periods, various provisory clauses and so on were set. High priority substances were acethylsalicylic acid, bromhexine, chlorpheniramine, and acetaminophen. In addition, we surveyed and provided analysis on the above mentioned materials in this study. The derived results will be suggested to the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (QIA) for development of guidelines of policy direction and the effective targeting for their monitoring program.
The purpose of this study is to examine the exposure risk of thermal paper ingredients by analyzing skin permeation using an in vitro Franz cell. Thermal printer papers are usually used for receipt papers, and the skin of shop assistant is continuously exposed to hazardous ingredients of thermal papers. The skin permeation risk of thermal paper ingredients, including bisphenol A and toluene, was determined using an in vitro Franz diffusion cell method using hairless mouse full skin and human cadaver epidermis. Bisphenol A, a major component in each thermal paper, showed moderate skin penetration. Most skin absorption rates were similar in both hairless mouse full skin and human cadaver epidermis. The possible risk of exposure to toxic substances in thermal paper was confirmed from this study. These is results are expected to contribute to establishment of management regulations for thermal papers.
Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide, purified from brown algae. It has multiple biological activities including anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. Our previous reports demonstrated that fucoidan can stimulate spleen cells and especially high molecular weight fucoidan is responsible for the immunostimulatory activity. However, we recently found that the activity of fucoidan can be dependent on its individual batch or sources. Four different fucoidans (fucoidan A, fucoidan B, high molecular weight fucoidan, and low molecular weight fucoidan) were used for this study. MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis were performed for analysis of the activity of fucoidan. MTT assay showed that fucoidan B significantly decreased the cellular activity of spleen cells compared to fucoidan A. In addition, fucoidan B consistently killed spleen cells based on the cell size by flow cytometry analysis and the morphology by an inverted microscope. To elucidate the detailed mechanisms of cytotoxicity, fucoidan B-treated spleen cells were stained with Rhodamine 123 solution and Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide for measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and early/late apoptosis, respectively. From these two assays, fucoidan B decreased the MMP and induced early apoptosis of spleen cells. Taken together, we suggest that different batches or origin of fucoidan may have differential activities on spleen cells, immunostimulatory and cytotoxic activity. The present study may provide some valuable information regarding use of fucoidan in the clinical area and in basic research.
A simplified prerequisite program is a basic element for an effective HACCP system operating in small meat packaging plants. We analyzed current configuration of the prerequisite evaluation checklists and classified according to two categories of general hygiene management and prerequisite requirements. The general hygiene management items overlapping with non-HACCP plant evaluation items were excluded except for the high rate of non-compliances. Non-compliance rates were calculated to determine the weak points of the current prerequisite program operation, and the potential risk elements were included in the simplified prerequisite requirements. The data used for the analysis of non-compliance rates were from the HACCP accreditation evaluation inspection reports by the Korea Livestock Products HACCP Accreditation Service. Of the existing 54 evaluation items, we selected 37 core items as simplified prerequisite requirements for meat packaging plants. In addition, we recommended simple modification of the evaluation items, with one item for evaluation of one check point.
Arsenic is an environmental pollutant and is known to induce toxicity. Arsenic acts on cells through a variety of mechanisms, influencing numerous signal transduction pathways. It induces a variety of cellular effects such as apoptosis, growth inhibition, promotion or inhibition of differentiation and angiogenesis. Arsenic has been associated with cancers of the skin, bladder, lung, kidney, and liver as well as with noncancerous conditions, diabetes and hepatopathy. However, arsenic trioxide (ATO) was reported to induce remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The anticancer efficiency of ATO was not restricted to APL; however, it has been extended to many solid tumors, including liver, cervical, prostate, lung, esophagus, and bladder tumors. Therefore, in this study, a number of previous studies are summarized that demonstrate arsenic-induced toxicity, including carcinogenesis and anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. The arsenic metabolism that is involved in arsenic-induced toxicity is also discussed.