Copper is an essential micronutrient whose deficiency is often seen to occur in humans. Although many biomedical studies have focused on the use of nanoparticles, the nutritional effects of nano-sized copper oxide particles are not well known. This aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional bioavailability of nano- and micro-sized copper oxide (CuO) particles in copper-deficient (CuD) mice. Copper deficiency was induced in mice by feeding a CuD diet (0.93 mg Cu/kg diet) for 7 weeks. After the induction of copper deficiency, nano- or micro-sized copper oxide particles were administered orally at two different doses (0.8 and 4.0 mg CuO/kg body weight) to mice in the following groups: (1) normal control (NC), (2) CuD, (3) low dose micro-sized CuO, (4) high dose micro-sized CuO, (5) low dose nano-sized CuO, and (6) high dose nano-sized CuO. The hepatic copper concentration in the CuD group was significantly lower than that in the NC group. Compared to the NC group, the CuD group exhibited lower serum ceruloplasmin (CP) activity and CP level. The copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase activity in the CuD group was significantly lower than that in the NC group. Treatment with nano- or micro-sized copper oxide particles for 2 weeks restored the hepatic copper levels and serum CP activities to values similar to those observed in the NC group. The CP levels and copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase activities in all the copper oxide treatment groups also recovered to normal values after 3 weeks of copper oxide treatment. These results show that oral administration of either nano- or micro-sized copper oxide particles for 2–3 weeks restored the normal condition in previously CuD mice.
Calcium exerts antiproliferative effects on cellular targets through the promotion of differentiation and apoptosis. We investigated the influence of calcium on the formation of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACFs), which were induced by exposure to azoxymethane (AOM) followed by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), in ICR mice. Six-week-old ICR mice received 3 (weeks 0–2) intraperitoneal injections of AOM (10 mg/kg BW), followed by treatment with 2% DSS via drinking water for a week to induce preneoplastic lesions. The mice were then divided into 3 groups: the control (AOM/DSS), AOM/DSS + 1.0% Ca, and AOM/DSS + 2.0% Ca groups. Calcium (1.0 or 2.0%) was administered via drinking water for 12 weeks. After sacrificing the mice, the total numbers of aberrant crypts (ACs) and ACFs were measured in the colonic mucosa after methylene blue staining. The control group displayed 11.58 ± 2.43 ACFs/colon, which were composed of a total of 30.42 ± 5.18 ACs/colon. The number of ACFs with more than 3 ACs, which are likely to progress to colon cancer, was 2.37 ± 0.68. Compared to the control, 1.0% or 2.0% calcium treatment significantly decreased the number of total ACFs and ACs in a concentration-dependent manner. The decrease in ACFs or ACs after calcium treatment was associated with decreases in cell proliferation and β-catenin expression and an increase in apoptosis in colonic mucosal cells. These results suggest that calcium may exert a protective effect against colon cancer by inhibiting the development of ACFs/ACs in ICR mice.
Thirty-one Campylobacter jejuni isolates (22 from various local sources, 9 from imported chicken meats) were subtyped with PFGE and flaA typing to investigate their genetic relatedness. Based on a 90% similarity criterion, 23 and 21 genotypic patterns were formed by PFGE and flaA typing, respectively. The discriminatory indices for PFGE, flaA typing, and a composite analysis of PFGE and flaA typing were 0.9785, 0.9527, and 0.9871, respectively. Similar patterns in composite analysis were observed between sources (cattle and chicken, and cattle and human), indicating that reservoir animals may have been the source of human campylobacteriosis. Therefore, strict hygiene measures from farm to table should be implemented to prevent diseases due to C. jejuni in humans.
A colonic enterolith was necropsied in an 11-year-old pony with a 2-week history of mild, intermittent colic. The enterolith was in the distal portion of the large intestine. A 2.1-kg, greenish-gray, rugby ball-sized (19 cm × 15 cm × 12 cm) stone was extracted from the intestine. Analysis of the component elements revealed 100% magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite). Enterolithiasis commonly affects Arabian horses, and most horses with enteroliths are ~10 years of age. Enterolithiasis is associated with recurrent colic. This is the first report of a colonic stone in a pony.
A female wild raccoon dog was referred with a history of generalized seizure. Mild leukocytosis was noted on laboratory tests. Gross lesions included nasal hemorrhage, hemothorax, and hemorrhage in the urinary bladder with hematuria. Microscopically, interstitial and purulent bacterial pneumonia was observed in the lungs. In the cerebellum, characteristic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in Purkinje cells, and severe demyelination was observed in the cerebellar white matter. Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection was suspected and confirmed after detection of CDV nucleoprotein RNA in the cerebrum and the lungs by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Based on the histopathological and molecular diagnostic findings, it was concluded that the raccoon dog was infected with CDV.