Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are present in all tissues, can differentiate into cells with various specific functions. Recently, cell-based therapies using MSCs have been increasing in the veterinary research and related fields. In this study, we investigated the cellular morphology, proliferating capacities, expression of cell surface markers such as CD13, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD90, and CD105, mesodermal differentiation potentials, and expression of senescence-related markers of p53, p21, and telomerase reverse transcriptase in equine adipose tissue-derived MSCs (eAD-MSCs) after cryopreservation. The eAD-MSCs were analyzed immediately and after being frozen in liquid nitrogen for 1 year (< 1 year, G1) and more than 3 years (> 3 years, G2), respectively. After cryopreservation for 1 - 3 years, G2 eAD-MSCs showed similar cellular morphology, proliferating capacities, and expression of cell surface markers when compared with G1 eAD-MSCs. Moreover, cryopreservation did not affect the adipogenic, chondrogenic, or osteogenic differentiation potentials of G1 and G2 eAD-MSCs. Collectively, cryopreservation for (or over) 3 years maintained the stem cell phenotype and differentiation potentials of eAD-MSCs. These results will be an advantage that can be effectively used for future development of cell-based therapies.
To elucidate the effect of cellular phone electromagnetic wave (EMW) exposure on the developing cerebellar cortex of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats, animals were exposed to cellular phone electromagnetic waves for 1 hr per day for 3 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed by cardiac perfusion, after which histological samples were prepared and observed microscopically. In the EMW exposure group, external granule cells were remained partially in the external granular layer without migrating into the internal granular layer. In addition, dark stained shrunken Purkinje cells with pyknotic nuclei increased and the outline of cells became irregular and showed degenerative signs, such as mitochondrial swelling and disrupted cristae. Moreover, the cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticula and Golgi complex were severely swollen. Bergmann glial cells adjacent to the dark stained Purkinje cells were swollen and cytoplasmic organelles were scant. Dark stained shrunken granule cells were also observed and the outline of cells was irregular. The results of the present study suggest that cellular phone EMW exposure to neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats leads to a partial delay of early migration of cerebellar cortical cells and degenerative changes in Purkinje cells, Bergmann glial cells and granule cells.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) damages vital organs and tissues, frequently leading to death in birds, and causes serious economic losses in the poultry industry. In addition, HPAIV can infect humans and other mammals, often with fatal outcomes. In this study, the virucidal efficacy of Clean-Zone®, which contains citric acid, malic acid and phosphoric acid, against avian influenza virus (AIV, H9N2) was investigated. Virucidal efficacy was determined by examining the viability of AIV after contact with the disinfectant in the allantoic membrane of chicken embryos. The disinfectant and AIV were reacted under hard water (HW) and organic matter suspension (OM) condition. AIV was inactivated with 200- and 50-fold dilutions of the disinfectant under HW and OM conditions, respectively. As the disinfectant, Clean-Zone®, has a virucidal efficacy against AIV, it can be used to prevent the spread of animal viral diseases.
Red meats are important animal foods because of their nutritional aspects, but the over-consumption of red meat produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by heme iron and induces colorectal cancer. The effect of orally administered hemin and calcium provided in drinking water for 6 weeks on colon carcinogenesis was observed in male ICR mice. After the mice were acclimated for 1 week, they received three subcutaneous azoxymethane (AOM, 10 mg/kg b.w.) injections weekly and were provided with 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) via drinking water for the next week. The mice were divided into three groups: the control, hemin, and hemin + calcium groups. The orally administered daily dose of hemin was 2 g/kg b.w., and 0.05% calcium was provided daily via drinking water. Colonic mucosa samples were stained with methylene blue, and then, the numbers of aberrant crypt (AC) and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were counted. Lipid peroxidation in feces was estimated by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The total numbers of AC and ACF per colon in the hemin group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Calcium treatment significantly decreased the numbers of ACF and AC in the colon of mice. The TBARS value in the feces of the hemin + calcium group was significantly lower than that in the feces of the hemin group. These results showed that hemin enhances the formation of pre-neoplastic lesions in the colon of mice and that calcium decreases the risk of colon carcinogenesis.
Musculoskeletal disorders including fracture, tendonitis, osteoarthritis, and laminitis are common diseases in racehorses that can cause large economic losses in the racehorse industry. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being applied as new clinical tools for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders of racehorses. To investigate the immunomodulatory effects of stem cell therapy, we analyzed the anti- and pro-inflammatory factors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of racehorses before and after stem cell application using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors (CCL5, IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-18) were decreased while those of anti-inflammatory factors (TIMP-1, IL-10, TGF-β1, and VEGF) were increased significantly after application of equine adipose tissue-derived MSCs (eAD-MSCs) to racehorses with fracture. Moreover, the expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-2, IL-18, and TNF-α) were decreased while those of anti-inflammatory factors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2, IL-10, TGF-β1, and VEGF) increased significantly after stem cell application of eAD-MSCs in racehorses with tendonitis. After evaluating immunomodulatory effects of stem cell therapy on equine musculoskeletal disorders such as fracture and tendonitis, our results showed that expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors were decreased, while those of anti-inflammatory factors increased significantly after stem cell application of eAD-MSCs. These findings suggest that the healing effects of the stem cell therapy might be due to its modulation of inflammatory factors.
This study evaluated the effect of reduced glutathione (GSH) for the reduction of stress and inflammatory response in calves inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine. Twenty-five calves were divided into five groups of 5 calves. The negative control (NC) did not receive any vaccination or drug treatment. The positive control (PC), GSH-25, GSH-50 and GSH-100 were intramuscularly injected with GSH at concentrations of 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg / 10 kg body weight (BW), respectively, for 3 days after FMD vaccination. On day 3, 5 and 7 post-treatment, the serum cortisol and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) levels in GSH-50 and GSH-100 were significantly decreased compared with those in PC (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the serum cortisol and TNF-α levels between GSH-100 and NC 3 and 5 days post-treatment, and between GSH-50, GSH-100, and NC 7 days post-treatment. The results from this study suggest that treatment of 50 mg / 10 kg BW GSH for 3 days is useful for the reduction of stress and inflammatory response caused by FMD vaccination in calves.
Exudative epidermitis (EE) is a generalized skin disease of pigs, mainly caused by Staphylococcus hyicus (S. hyicus). Antibiotic resistant S. hyicus leads to the failure of antimicrobial treatments. This necessitates proper identification of the strains in the field and determination of their antimicrobial susceptibility. This study was carried out to isolate Korean S. hyicus and determine its antimicrobial resistance. Isolate was sensitive to ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, and tylosin, but remarkably resistant to amoxicillin, lincomycin, penicillin, streptomycin, and tetracycline. Our study contributes to the understanding of the characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of Korean S. hyicus, which in turn will provide an antimicrobial treatment strategy to control EE.