Recently, two strains of a novel enterohepatic Helicobacter species, H. equorum, were isolated from fecal samples of two clinically healthy horses in Belgium. The purpose of the present study was to detect the presence of H. equorum infection in fecal samples of adult horses from Jeju Island using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 86 fecal samples from 31 clinically healthy Thoroughbred horses and 55 horses native to the Jeju Island were evaluated. H. equorum DNA was detected in 10.9% (6/55) of the native-horses, while all the Thoroughbred horses showed negative PCR results. Ages of the H. equorum DNA-positive horses ranged from 2 to 4 years old. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of H. equorum detection in fecal samples from horses in Korea.
Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are DNA oncogenic viruses that belong to the Papillomavirus genus. The purposes of the present study were to histopathologically diagnose skin warts on Korean native cattle from Jeju Island and to detect the presence of BPVs from tissue samples of the skin warts, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The sites of 10 skin wart involvement were the head (40%: 10% were in both the head and neck), shoulder (30%), neck (20%), and tail (20%), including the perineum. All skin warts were confirmed as fibropapillomas, as characterized by the abundant proliferating fibrous tissue in the dermis and increased epithelial covering of variable thickness. According to the PCR analysis, five out of 10 (50%) cattle were positive for BPV-1, and six (60%) cattle were positive for BPV-2. Two cattle were positive for both BPV-1 and BPV-2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of BPV-1 and BPV-2 infections of skin warts from Korean native cattle in Korea.
In photobiophysics, biophoton means a kind of biological energy which enhances most metabolisms of the body. To investigate the immuno-enhancing effects of biophoton energy projector (BEP) producing light energy, pigs were irradiated with BEP for 8 weeks. Swine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (sPBMCs) were isolated from the blood of irradiated pigs. In this study, the antigen uptake and mitochondrial membrane potential of sPBMCs were measured by flow cytometric analysis. The irradiation of BEP increased the antigen uptake of sPBMCs. For functional analysis, the production of Bordetella bronchiseptica-specific IgG, measured using antigen-specific ELISA, was increased during the period of BEP irradiation. Taken together, the results suggest that the irradiation of BEP has immune-enhancing effects on sPBMCs.
Bone fractures are most often seen in racetrack horses because of the high level of intensity in racing. These issues are the main cause of decreased performance in racehorses. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been explored to improve intra-articular therapy in racehorses. MSCs are essential for the repair and regeneration of damaged tissues. In this study, the effect of intra-articular injection of MSCs in racehorses was investigated. Before accessing the MSC therapy, synovial fluids were obtained from the fracture site of racehorses, and adipose tissue was collected for MSC isolation. Using the MSC specific marker, adipose tissue-derived MSCs were identified. The racehorses received intra-articular injection of autologous MSCs (or allogeneic) (3 × 107 cells/3 mL). After 1 or 2 weeks, synovial fluids were collected from racehorses. To test the effect of MSC injection using ELISA, we analyzed inflammatory factors from the untreated samples compared to MSC-treated samples of racehorses. The level of pro-inflammatory factors (interleukin-1β and prostaglandin E2) was significantly decreased in synovial fluids of MSC-injected racehorses, compared to before accessing the MSC therapy, whereas, the level of anti-inflammatory factor (interleukin-10) was higher than prior to accessing the MSC therapy. Further studies are needed to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of MSC in racehorses.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive source for cell therapy, as they have the potential for differentiation into multi-lineage cells. Adipose tissue is a safe source due to its easy extraction and abundant resource, with minimal risk to the organ donor. In this study, we attempted to correlate the harvest yield and resulting multipotency of feline adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (fAD-MSCs) in accordance with processing time. fAD-MSCs were individually isolated from the abdominal adipose tissues of 6 felines. They were divided into two groups, based on their processing times – Group 1: 0~1 day after adipose tissue harvesting; Group 2: more than 3 days after adipose tissue harvesting. In both groups, the proliferation capacity was analyzed using the cumulative population doubling level (CPDL) calculation assay. The expression levels of MSC-specific markers and differentiation potentials into mesodermal cell lineages were also evaluated. We observed that fAD-MSC isolation yields and CPDL were excellent in Group 1 compared with Group 2. We also found that the differentiation potential-specific genes (ACAN and OPN) were strongly expressed in Group 1 compared with Group 2. These results suggest that for the clinical treatments of feline diseases, fAD-MSCs should be isolated within 1 day after adipose tissue harvesting.
Mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FMB1), ochratoxin A, T2 toxin, and zearalenone, are found in numerous vegetables. Mycotoxin accumulation in food and feed poses serious health risks to humans and animals because of carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and toxic properties. In addition, mycotoxins cause large economic losses in commercial crop production, food and feed processing, and animal husbandry worldwide. In this study, an analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of the levels of AFB1, DON, and FMB1 in cow blood with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. AOZTM and Myco6in1TM multitoxin immunoaffinity columns and an OasisTM reversed-phase solid-phase extraction Hydrophilic-Lipophilic-Balanced columns were used to purify and concentrate the blood samples. Extracts that contained AFB1, DON, and FMB1 had average recovery of 64.0%, 98.0%, and 89.9%, respectively. In conclusion, we used LC-MS/MS to detect several important toxicological mycotoxins in cow blood. The multimycotoxin method, which detected and quantified the levels of AFB1, DON, and FMB1 can be used in animal pilot studies to monitor simultaneous exposure to major mycotoxins.
The Korean National Residue Program (KNRP) use three plans for the sampling of domestic meats: monitoring, surveillance, and exploratory testing. We analyzed the results of monitoring and surveillance for residual veterinary drugs and pesticides in meat during 2012 and 2013. KNRP targets food-producing animals including cattle, pigs, chickens, ducks, sheep (goats), and horses. Sampling mainly focuses on veterinary drugs and pesticide residues found in tissues such as muscle, kidney, and liver. A total of 548 residue violations occurred between 2012 and 2013, mainly in pigs (427 violations) and cattle (113 violations). The most commonly found compounds were antimicrobials such as penicillins, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and macrolides. Pig residue violations were mainly for the presence of penicillins (34%) and fluoroquinolones (28%), while most residue violations in cattle were due to the presence of penicillins (32%) and aminoglycosides (27%). The overall rates of violations were 0.21% in 2012 and 0.10% in 2013. A major cause of violations was the failure to follow the appropriate withdrawal periods (68.8%). The results of the KNRP were analyzed to provide information on agricultural chemical residues that are of public health concern and to help control and prevent residue violations for ensuring food safety.
In this study, we investigated and analyzed the registration, sales and regulatory management system of in vitro diagnostic veterinary medical reagents (IVDVMRs) in Korea. The registration of IVDVMRs has gradually increased since 2000, and total of 233 products from 58 companies were registered from 1975 to 2014. The market size of IVDVMRs is estimated to be approximately 12 billion Won per year from 2011 to 2013: the export sales and proportion was estimated to be 36.8% as 4.4 billion Won in 2013. Of these products, the ranking of the sales were canine heartworm, bovine tuberculosis, swine fever, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, canine distemper+adenovirus+parvovirus disease, foot and mouth disease, etc. In vitro diagnostic human medical reagents were diverted biological medicine from the medical devices by the revision of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law Enforcement Regulations in 2014 in Korea. In contrast, in vitro diagnostic devices for animal were still managed as medical devices and biological medicines, respectively. The diagnostic reagents for infectious diseases have neither classification nor grade systems. Good manufacturing practices (GMP) requirements on IVDVMRs were also exempted from the current system. This study suggested that the registration of the IVDVMRs has increased since 2005, and regulations of these devices should be improved for the effective operating system.
A 26-month-old male mixed-breed dog of Korean origin was subjected to necropsy following death after a history of decreased appetite and weight loss. Necropsy revealed generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Histopathological examination of samples from the spleen, mandibular lymph nodes, liver, kidney, and large intestine showed granulomas with numerous macrophages containing intracytoplasmic Leishmania amastigotes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed Leishmania amastigotes in the macrophage cytoplasm. All tissues with granulomas were positive for Leishmania spp, which was confirmed to be Leishmania infantum by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR, and in situ hybridization. To our knowledge, this is the second case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Korea.
Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a serious public health problem worldwide, as it is one of the main risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cross-species transmission of HBV has been reported in non-human primates, and pigs may also be infected with HBV or an HBV-like agent. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the presence of HBV antigens and anti-HBV antibodies in pig sera, providing further support for the existence of HBV or an HBV-like agent in pig populations. The HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV e antigen (HBeAg) in pig serum samples were detected using HBsAg and HBeAg ELISA Kits, respectively. Antibodies to HBsAg and the Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) in serum samples were also detected using anti-HBsAg and anti-HBcAg antibody ELISA Kits, respectively. HBsAg and HBeAg were detected in 7 of 442 (1.6%) and 7 of 184 (3.8%) pig serum samples, respectively. Furthermore, antibodies specific to HBsAg and HBcAg were identified in 45 of 442 (10.2%) and 39 of 434 (9.0%) pig serum samples, respectively. However, neither HBV DNA nor antibodies to HBeAg were detected in 409 and 298 pig serum samples, respectively. HBV antigens and anti-HBV antibodies were both present in a considerable number of pig serum samples, suggesting that pigs could be infected with a variant HBV or an HBV-like agent. Further studies will be necessary to confirm cross-species infection of pigs with HBV.
This study was conducted to propose the use of a non-compliance rate for evaluation of the HACCP operational condition. We calculated the sectoral non-compliance rate from the HACCP prerequisite evaluation reports. This rate indicates vulnerability of the operational prerequisite conditions that must be improved to increase HACCP reliability for safe foods. The common weak point in the livestock products industry was storage and transportation management, and operating condition in butcher shops were worse than those for the other livestock businesses. In order to obtain better information on findings, evaluation items should be improved simply with one item for evaluation of one check point.