In this study, we examined the protective immunity of a combination of seven Brucella abortus recombinant proteins; superoxide dismutase (rSodC), riboflavin synthase subunit beta (rRibH), 50S ribosomal protein (50s rL7/L12), nucleoside diphosphate kinase (rNdk), malate dehydrogenase (rMDH), arginase (rRocF), and elongation factor (rTsf) cloned in a pMal vector system and expressed in DH5α. Mice groups were immunized thrice with a combined subunit vaccine (CSV-7) at 0, 2, and 5 weeks and subsequently challenged with B. abortus at 5 × 104 CFU at 6 weeks. At four weeks post-infection, the mice were sacrificed and the bacterial burden in their spleens was quantified. Results revealed bacterial log reductions of 0.63 and 0.34 in comparison to PBS and maltose-binding protein (MBP), respectively. Cytokine profiling revealed a marked increase in IFN-γ (interferon-gamma), MCP-1 (macrophage chemoattractant protein-1) and IL-6 (interleukin 6) cytokines at 5-weeks post-immunization. On the other hand, only TNF was heightened at 7-weeks post-immunization. In general, this cytokine profile is consistently reflective of a Th1 immune response, which is beneficial for host immunoresistance.
Excessive intake of red meat has been associated with colon carcinogenesis. The effect of hemin and zinc on colon carcinogenesis was investigated in male ICR mice. After acclimation for 1 week, five-week-old mice received three s.c. injections (0-2nd weeks of the experiment) of azoxymethane (AOM; 10 mg/kg b.w.) weekly and were treated by 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for the next 1 week to induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Mice were fed on AIN-76A purified rodent diet for 6 weeks. There were three experimental groups; control, hemin, and hemin + zinc groups. The daily oral doses of hemin and zinc were 534 mg/kg and 55 mg/kg b.w., respectively. After staining colonic mucosa with 0.2% methylene blue, the ACF, aberrant crypts (AC), and polyps were counted. Lipid peroxidation in liver was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The numbers of AC, ACF, large ACF (i.e., ≥4 AC/ACF), and polyps in the hemin group were higher than those in the control group. In hemin + zinc group, the numbers of AC, ACF, large ACF were significantly lower compared to the hemin or control groups (p < 0.05), and the number of polyps was also significantly lower compared to that in the hemin group (p < 0.05). The TBARS level in the livers of the hemin + zinc group was significantly lower than that of the hemin group (p < 0.05). These results suggest that hemin enhances colon carcinogenesis and that co-treatment with zinc can protect against the induction of colon carcinogenesis.
Equine reproductive failures for many different reasons are the main contributors to economic losses in the horse industry. This paper describes major bacterial agents isolated from thoroughbred mares that had reproductive failures in the previous year as well as the antimicrobial susceptibility of these bacterial isolates. A total of 146 vaginal and uterine swab samples were submitted to Jeju Self-Governing Veterinary Research Institute by equine veterinarians from 2011 to 2015. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus were the most frequently encountered bacteria in 29 samples (48.3%). Other identified species included 21 samples (35%) with Escherichia coli, six samples (10%) with Klebsiella pneumoniae, and four samples (6.7%) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefazolin, cefuroxime, and florfenicol, while all were resistant to tetracycline and kanamycin. All E. coli were sensitive to enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and most were susceptible to cefazolin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, florfenicol, and gentamicin. All K. pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefazolin, cefuroxime, florfenicol, and ciprofloxacin, while all were resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. P. aeruginosa exhibited sensitivity to quinolones and aminoglycosides, particularly gentamicin, while all were resistant to cefazolin and cefuroxime.
Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e) has a pivotal role in the colonization and enterotoxicity of F18+Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), which causes porcine edema disease (ED). In this study, a Stx2eA mutant, which has a Glu167Gln mutation in Stx2eA that inactivates N-glycosidase activity, was genetically engineered to evaluate its potential immunogenicity and protective efficacy. A significant increase in serum IgG1 (a Th2 indicator) was shown in mice immunized with the mutated Stx2eA. However, only 56% of the mice immunized with the toxoid (5 μg) survived following a challenge with a lethal dose 50 (LD50) of a virulent F18+STEC strain (JOL654), while mice immunized with Salmonella ghosts delivering selected antigens of F18+STEC showed an 86% survival rate. The results suggest that sole use of the mutated Stx2eA toxoid may not be an effective preventive strategy for the control of porcine ED.
American foulbrood (AFB) is caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, which is highly contagious and often lethal to honeybee broods. To control AFB, rapid diagnostic tools including those based on immunological methods are required. We produced several specific mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against P. larvae. Interestingly, a few of the MAbs were revealed to be an IgM-type antibody. To ascertain the effects of adjuvants on immunoglobulin isotype switching, BALB/c mice were immunized with various adjuvants, i.e., Freund's adjuvant (FA), Alum adjuvant, and AddaVax™ followed by the generation of hybridoma that secreted monoclonal antibodies to P. larvae. In the case of AddaVax™, all screened hybridoma clones secreted IgG-type MAbs, whereas hybridomas generated by Alum and FA secreted 91.25% (7/80) and 66.67% (11/33) respectively, IgG-type MAbs. Although the mechanism of incomplete immunoglobulin isotype switching associated with the P. larvae antigen needs further study, our results indicate that the applied adjuvants can have a significant effect on immunoglobulin isotype switching results.
Many β-lactam antimicrobials, including cephalosporins, have been used in both veterinary and human medicine in the treatment of zoonotic and infectious diseases. Especially, third-generation cephalosporins such as ceftiofur have been approved for systemic use in food-producing animals, which has resulted in the emergence of β-lactamase genes. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of β-lactamase-producing E. coli isolated from commercial layers and characterized their antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. Among the 85 cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant E. coli, all isolates showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial, and the rates of resistance to nalidixic acid, cephalothin, ampicillin, and cefazolin were more than 50.0%. In particular, 28 isolates were identified as containing b-lactamase genes. The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated AmpC genes blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-15, and blaCMY-2 were detected in 1, 6, 5, and 4 isolates, respectively. The non-ESBL/pAmpC gene blaTEM-1 was detected in 12 isolates. The distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes in 28 β-lactamase-producing E. coli was as follows: aac(3)-II (64.3%), sul2 (32.1%), tetA (28.6%), sul1 (25.0%), cmlA gene (25.0%), and tetB (14.3%). In total, 6 virulence genes (astA, eaeA, escV, fimH, iucC, and papC) were also identified and the rates in virulence gene were as below: fimH (92.9%), iucC (25.0%), astA (21.4%), papC (10.7%), eaeA (7.1%) and escV (7.1%). Our findings suggest that antimicrobials used in commercial layer must be regulated in Korea, and comprehensive surveillance is necessary to prevent the dissemination of resistant isolates.
In order to deal with various environmental conditions, most living organisms adapt and respond to environmental cues through nucleotide-based second-messenger signaling. Such signals regulate various endogenous factors required for environmental adaptation. In bacteria, there are five kinds of nucleotide-based second messengers, one of which is cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). The molecule is known to regulate many cellular functions including growth, motility, biofilm formation, and virulence. Various environmental cues cause changes in the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP, depending on the activity of specific c-di-GMP synthases and hydrolases in cells. In this review, we provide insights into nucleotide signaling in bacteria, emphasizing its impact on basic metabolism, its association with other signaling mechanisms, and its role in regulating the virulence of a wide range of bacteria. Moreover, we discuss recent studies suggesting a role for the implicated signaling molecules in bacterial persistence and antibiotic resistance.