To reduce the air pollution from maritime activities, which is proven to have severe impacts on the worldwide environment and human health, many international regulations have been established. Therefore, an effective political strategy and a complete inventory of emissions are needed to control atmospheric ship pollution and comply with these international standards. The purpose of this study is to calculate the amount of emission in three operating modes (cruising, maneuvering, and hoteling) for some main pollutants emitted from container ships and trucks operating in Daesan port in Korea based on bottom-up methodology. The results showed that the volume of air pollution of about 6,500 tons from container ships and 1,455 tons from container trucks were emitted in Daesan port area. Also, a total of 4 billion won (about 3.6 billion won from container ships, and about 400 million won from container trucks) was estimated.
The concept of sustainability was first introduced a few decades ago, and it has gradually become the primary concern of many nations and firms around the world. Sustainability is a broad concept that encompasses three pillars, namely, economic, social, and environmental, represented as profit, people, and nature. It implies that firms can only sustainably develop if they grow without compromising the benefits of their stakeholders. Thus, this study aims to identify, through the participatory approach and the Delphi method, an appropriate set of sustainability indicators to strategically evaluate Hai Phong port's sustainable development achievements. The paper will critically review past studies on port sustainable development to find the most frequently used indicators for assessing port sustainability. These indicators vary because of the availability of data and the researcher's perceived level of importance given to each indicator. Finally, we employ the Delphi method to narrow down the initial set of sustainability indicators based on consensus on the importance of indicators and availability of data among experts. Some indicators that are not important and statistical data unavailable are eliminated. Therefore, the final set includes all crucial indicators for evaluating the sustainability of Hai Phong seaports with collected data.
This study introduces the Three-Memory-Model (Cherry, 2019) in education into Maritime Simulator- based training in Sri Lanka and conducts empirical research. In simulator-based education what is disseminated as knowledge during the Briefing, Scenario and Debriefing phases must be transferred from short-term, across working memory to long-term-memory. Working memory gained during the scenario phase, could be encoded into long-term-memory through rehearsal probes. But the number of probes which could be tolerated by the participants of simulator-based training has not undergone empirical investigation. Thus, selecting the Open Sea scenario phase as its setting the research questions aim to identify tolerance limits in the participants for the number of freezes and the number of probes introduced during each freeze. The methodology selects a population of seafarers (n = 60). Through stratified random sampling this population was subdivided based on experience at sea as Group A (n = 30): Mean of 2 years and Group B (n = 30): Mean of 13.6 years of sea experience. The duration of the open sea scenario phase is 35 minutes with freezes at 10-minute intervals. The number of probes were given a range of 7 to. Data analysis utilized SPSS. The highest percentage mean value was obtained for three freezes for the Open Sea scenario phase while two freezes had the next highest percentage mean value. The mean value of the tolerance limits for questions during one freeze is approximately 9 and 6 probes for Group A and B respectively. Citing prior research on working memory, visuo-spatial vs. verbal working memory, reaction time and age this study raises a counter argument against the findings: the self-declared tolerance limits of the number of questions the participants feel comfortable to answer during each freeze. The findings of this research are valuable to maritime Simulator-based instructional designers outside and within Sri Lanka.
With the continuous prosperity and development of the marine industry, the number of ships is increasing while greenhouse gas emissions are rising. In order to meet the relevant international ship emission regulations, the solution of developing electric ships is proposed. As the core device of the electric ship propulsion system, the maturity and applicability of power battery technology play a key role in the development of the electric ship. This article introduces the principles and advantages of the fuel cell, lithium-ion battery as well as supercapacitor battery, respectively, and analyzes the application status and challenges of power batteries in existing electric ships. The development direction and problems to be solved of power battery in current and future ship applications are put forward, which can provide a reference for further research.
In shipping industry, the Letter of indemnity (LOI) is a common tool used by shipowners, ship operators, buyers, sellers and their bankers. Specifically, LOI is a document given by the party requesting some special requirement that deviates from a regulated practice to another to smooth their contractual obligations. However, there are still many doubts around using this document in the practice. This article aims to research the awareness of Vietnamese shipping firms while using this tool. A survey of Vietnamese shipping companies was conducted, then the collected data was analyzed related problems while applying LOI. The findings will not only enrich knowledge but also support Vietnamese shipping firms when using this useful shipping document in the international shipping.