자율주행 시물레이터는 자율 주행을 시험하고 검증하는 일에 있어 현실에 비해 높은 비용 절감의 효과를 가 지고 오지만 높은 컴퓨터 연산량에 의해 많은 하드웨어 기기를 요구하게 된다. 게임을 이용하여 자율 주행에 필요한 학습 데이터를 획득하는 경우도 있다. 게임은 저비용 시뮬레이터로 활용되고 있지만 게임 외적인 특정 상황을 모의하기에도, 필요한 데이터 획득에도 제한적이다. 또 다른 방법으로 게임 엔진을 통한 가상 환경 모 의 연구가 수행되고 있다. 하지만 게임 엔진에서는 사용자가 직접 필요한 모델링을 해줘야 하기 때문에 개발 비용이 크게 작용된다. 특히, 3D LIDAR는 360도로 Ray를 쏴서 정밀 거리를 최소 10Hz 이내의 실시간 획득이 필요하다. 실시간으로 3D LIDAR 데이터를 획득하는 것은 GPU(Graphics Processing Unit) 사용량이 많은 작업 이기 때문에, 저비용 시뮬레이터를 위해서는 저비용 3D LIDAR 모의가 필요하다. 본 논문에서는 낮은 컴퓨터 연산을 사용하는 C++ 기반 3D LIDAR 모의 프레임 워크를 제안한다. 제안된 3D LIDAR는 다수의 언덕으로 이 루어진 비포장 Map에서 성능을 검증 하였으며, 성능 검증을 의해 본 논문에서 생성된 3D LIDAR로 간단한 LPP(Local Path Planning) 생성 방법도 소개한다. 제안된 3D LIDAR 프레임 워크는 저비용 실시간 모의가 필요 한 자율 주행 분야에 적극 활용되길 바란다.
본 연구는 최근에 도입된 원통형 종이포트 묘에 대한 현장 활용가능성을 검토하고자 기존의 프러그 묘를 대조구로 하여 몇가지 육묘조건에 따른 묘의 생육 차이를 분석하고, 정식 후 수량을 비교하였다. 전주 유리온실에서 수행된 육묘 실험에서는 묘의 생육은 프러그 트레이 50공에서 지속 시비한 처리에서 생육량이 가장 많았다. 생육은 육묘 상자의 구멍에 채우는 상토량에 따라 영향을 받으며, 육묘 상자 보다는 시비 처리에 따른 차이가 더 컸다. 공시한 ‘청양’, ‘대권선언’, ‘롱그린맛’ 품종 모두 같은 양상을 보였다. 육묘 후 비닐하우스와 노지에 심어서 뿌리 발달과 수량을 조사한 결과, 비닐하우스 재배 시 ‘청양’ 품종의 뿌리 내림은 종이포트묘와 프러그 묘 간에 차이가 없었으며, 공시한 3 품종 모두 최종 누적수량의 차이는 없었다. 전주 지역 노지재배에서는 ‘청양’은 종이포트묘가, ‘대권선언’과 ‘롱그린맛’은 프러그묘가 누적수량이 많았다. 영양 지역에서 ‘대권선언’ 품종은 종이포트묘와 프러그묘 간에 수량 차이는 없었다. 결론적으로 육묘 처리 조건에 따른 원통형 종이포트 고추묘의 생육의 변화는 기존의 프러그묘와 같은 양상이며, 정식 후 재배조건과 품종에 따른 미미한 차이는 있었으나 전반적으로 수량차이는 없는 것으로 나타나 앞으로 원통 형 종이포트 고추 묘에 대한 활용가능성은 높을 것으로 판단되었다.
Due to the severe market conditions, pre-entrepreneur seeks to start their business through franchise company. This paper, using the data envelopment analysis(DEA) method, examines efficiency of a group of franchise company in order to provide efficiency information with pre-entrepreneur. Output-oriented DEA model is applied in the investigation of efficiency, and the overall efficiency score is decomposed into pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency. The input variables selected to evaluate the efficiency are franchise deposit, franchise contribution cost and the output variables are sales and number of franchises, and length of business. The results of this paper show franchise industry have the low level of overall efficiency and the main sources of inefficiency is found technical rather than scale. As a result, this paper provides not only the current status of efficiency information of a franchise with pre-entrepreneur but also give warning when they sign-up with franchise business.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of green practice on firm's performances. It focuses on the performance of the firm that already accredited as an excellent green practice firm by the Corporate Governance Service. The regression analysis method was chosen to measure firm performance. This paper also investigate how the performance of green practice are related to some factors such as levels of accredition, R&D cost, and R&D capitalization. This result will give an insight of constructive directions for increasing of firm performance.
Due to the competition between the various professional events, it is imperative for the team's management to improve efficiency by removing the inefficiencies of the professional team in order to gain a competitive edge. This study use different Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models to measure the efficiency of professional sport organizations. In this mathematical-analytical study, this study first reviews the related literature to analyze the input/output variables. In the end, the variables were detected and the data for this study were gathered from the Korean Basketball League (KBL). While previous studies examine relative efficiency of Korean Professional baseball teams by using CCR model, this study fully utilize the DEA method to investigate Korean professional sports organizations' operating problem. Thus, this study propose full results of DEA analysis such as efficiency score (overall, technical, and scale efficiency), slacks in inputs and outputs of inefficient organizations, Malmquist index) As a result, this study provides not only the exact productivity information of a team and a way of improving a firm's productivity with a decision maker.
Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a useful tool to analyze the relative efficiency of decision making units (DMU) characterized by multiple inputs and multiple outputs. This method has been popularly used as an analytical tool to suggest some strategic improvement. To do this, the results of DEA provide decision makers with a single efficiency score, efficient frontier, return to scale, benchmarking decision making units, etc. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate research performance of 38 universities and provide an inefficient university with the way of organizational changes to be an efficient university by using DEA. Various input and output variables are used to identify technical and scale inefficiency. Additionally, we analyze how an inefficient DMU could be changed an efficient DMU based on a case university. This result will give an insight of constructive directions for increasing of research performance to university decision makers.
Although digital contents markets grow very rapidly and are known as a higher value added industry, there is also potential risk in producing digital contents. Thus, many firms have begun to produce a firm's digital contents by outsourcing from other companies in order to catch-up new technologies and to make stable profits. However, since contracts are decided mostly based on bidding price and also standard contract are not available, there is a limit on the benefit from the contents outsourcing. Thus, this study argues that if both contract factors such as contract concreteness and flexibility are well managed, the on-line digital contents will increase the performance of a firm. This study deals with the influence on the firm's performance by the outsourcing in contract factors based on the empirical analysis. Using regression analysis with these two dependent variables, the findings showed that the contract concreteness had positive effects on both cost improvement performance and efficiency improvement performance, but the contract feasibility only had positive effect on efficiency improvement performance. In addition, the result of the study showed that the contract performance of outsourcing the digital contents have a positive impact on the partnership intention.
Though many researchers have interested in the effects of creativity management on the business performance, few have researched the relationship between management execution systems for creativity management and the performance. This paper tried to ident
Recently, nanotubes have considerably researched because of their novel application about photocatalysis, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), lithium ion battery, etc. In this work, self-standing nanotube arrays were fabricated by anodic oxidation method using pure Ti foil as a working electrode in ethylene glycole with 0.3M + . Growth behavior of nanotube arrays was compared according to temperature, voltage and time. The morphology, structure and crystalline of anodized nanotube arrays were observed by FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscope) and XRD (X-ray diffraction).
Self-standing TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated by potentiostatic anodic oxidation method using pure Ti foil as a working electrode and ethylene glycol solution as electrolytes with small addition of NH4F and H2O. The influences of anodization temperature and time on the morphology and formation of TiO2 nanotube arrays were investigated. The fabricated TiO2 nanotube arrays were applied as a photoelectrode to dye-sensitized solar cells. Regardless of anodizing temperature and time, the average diameter and wall thickness of TiO2 nanotube show a similar value, whereas the thickness show a different trend with reaction temperature. The thickness of TiO2 nanotube arrays anodized at 20℃ and 30℃ was time-dependent, but on the other hand its at 10℃ are independent of anodization time. The conversion efficiency is low, which is due to a morphology breaking of the TiO2 nanotube arrays in manufacturing process of photoelectrode.
Motorola which had developed and commercialized wireless telephone and mobile phone for the first time in the world made a decision on the separation of the mobile unit from the Motorola due to the continuous bad performance turn. In addition, the Korean company named Raincom which had developed and commercialized MP3 player have been disappeared since Raincom failed to compete with iPod of Apples. What is the main cause the companies that have been top of the world level weed out of IT product market? For less product life cycle and globalization of market, the company's competitiveness tends to be determined based on company's creative capability, rather than process implementation capability. Thus, companies spent a great amount of time and effort in the introduction of creativity management and R&D activities. However, as company's continuous investment on R&D and innovation activities did not lead to business performance, they starts to pay much attention on the effective R&D and innovation activities. Therefore, this paper tries to solve the limitation of the effectiveness of R&D activities by introducing the concept of 'creative quality'. The creative quality is executed by the creative process, which is designed for getting over the limitation of the traditional brainstorming method. This paper presents the concept so called 'creative quality management' and expects it to be an alternative to conquest the limitation of six sigma management.
The CEOs of global companies have been realized the imagination and creativity that can be obtained from the corporate culture is the crucial competitive power for sustainable growth. Thus, most domestic companies take an increasing interest in how to make creativity efficiently. This paper, however, argues that the proper application of performance indicators can engender creativity and innovation in organizations without costly investing on creativity. Assuming that creativity is actually dominated by the emotion of human resources rather than the rationality, this paper suggests the performance indicators developed based on the viewpoint of the characteristics of human needs and the relationship between the human needs and the attribute of works. The performance system which consists of activity, sociality and creativity is presented and the performance indicators for each category are also suggested to improve the spontaneity and creativity of human resources.