In this study, the physical properties and fracture characteristics according to the tensile load are evaluated on the materials of the polymeric filler and carbon fiber-based composite sleeve technique. The polymeric filler and the composite sleeve technique are applied to areas where the pipe body thickness is reduced due to corrosion in large-diameter water pipes. First, the tensile strength of the polymeric filler was 161.48~240.43 kgf/cm2, and the tensile strength of the polyurea polymeric filler was relatively higher than that of the epoxy. However, the tensile strength of the polymeric filler is relatively very low compared to ductile cast iron pipes(4,300 kgf/cm2<) or steel pipes(4,100 kgf/cm2). Second, the tensile strength of glass fiber, which is mainly used in composite sleeves, is 3,887.0 kgf/cm2, and that of carbon fiber is up to 5,922.5 kgf/cm2. The tensile strengths of glass and carbon fiber are higher than ductile cast iron pipe or steel pipe. Third, when reinforcing the hemispherical simulated corrosion shape of the ductile cast iron pipe and the steel pipe with a polymeric filler, there was an effect of increasing the ultimate tensile load by 1.04 to 1.06 times, but the ultimate load was 37.7 to 53.7% compared to the ductile cast iron or steel specimen without corrosion damage. It was found that the effect on the reinforcement of the corrosion damaged part was insignificant. Fourth, the composite sleeve using carbon fiber showed an ultimate load of 1.10(0.61T, 1,821.0 kgf) and 1.02(0.60T, 2,290.7 kgf) times higher than the ductile cast iron pipe(1,657.83 kgf) and steel pipe(2,236.8 kgf), respectively. When using a composite sleeve such as fiber, the corrosion damage part of large-diameter water pipes can be reinforced with same level as the original pipe, and the supply stability can be secured through accident prevention.
This study aimed to address the limitations of traditional plasma nitriding methods by implementing a short-term plasma oxy-nitriding treatment on the surface of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel. This treatment involved the sequential formation of nitride and oxide layers, to enhance surface hardness and corrosion resistance, respectively. The process resulted in the formation of a 20 μm-thick nitride layer and a 3 μm-thick oxide layer on the steel surface. Initially, the hardness increased by 2.2 times after nitriding, followed by a subsequent decrease of approximately 31 % after oxidation. While the nitriding process reduced corrosion resistance, the subsequent oxidation process led to the formation of a passive oxide film, effectively resolving this issue. The pitting corrosion of the oxide passive film started at 82.6 mVssc, providing better corrosion resistance characteristics than the nitride layer. Consequently, the trade-off between surface hardness and corrosion resistance in plasma oxy-nitrided AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel is anticipated to be recognized as an innovative and comprehensive surface treatment process for biomedical components.
In order to broaden the range of application of light weight aluminum alloys, it is necessary to enhance the mechanical properties of the alloys and combine them with other materials, such as cast iron. In this study, the effects of adding small amounts of Cu and Zr to the Al-Si-Mg based alloy on tensile properties and corrosion characteristics were investigated, and the effect of the addition on the interfacial compounds layer with the cast iron was also analyzed. Although the tensile strength of the Al-Si-Mg alloy was not significantly affected by the additions of Cu and Zr, the corrosion resistance in 3.5 %NaCl solution was found to be somewhat lowered in this research. The influence of Cu and Zr addition on the type and thickness of the interfacial compounds layer formed during compound casting with cast iron was not significant, and the main interfacial compounds were identified to be Al5FeSi and Al8Fe2Si phases, as in the case of the Al-Si-Mg alloys.
In this study, corrosion fatigue crack propagation was investigated in pH buffer environment using the giga strength steel and its heat-affected zone, and the results were compared with theoretical model prediction. Also, the pure corrosion effect on fatigue crack propagation in a corrosive environment was compared with the modified Forman equation. As results, the average value of corrosion rate obtained as the ratio of the net corrosion-induced crack length to the total crack length under cyclic loading in the base metal and heat-affected zone under experimental loading conditions. These results exhibit a new theoretical method for corrosion fatigue crack propagation that predicts a purely corrosion effect on the behavior to be determined.
In this study, defects generated in the YSZ coating layer of the IN738LC turbine blade are investigated using an optical microscope and SEM/EDS. The blade YSZ coating layer is composed of a Y-Zr component top coat layer and a Co component bond coat layer. A large amount of Cr/Ni component that diffused from the base is also measured in the bond coat. The blade hot corrosion is concentrated on the surface of the concave part, accompanied by separation of the coating layer due to the concentration of combustion gas collisions here. In the top coating layer of the blade, cracks occur in the vertical and horizontal directions, along with pits in the top coating layer. Combustion gas components such as Na and S are contained inside the pits and cracks, so it is considered that the pits/cracks are caused by the corrosion of the combustion gases. Also, a thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer of several μm thick composed of Al oxide is observed between the top coat and the bond coat, and a similar inner TGO with a thickness of several μm is also observed between the bond coat and the matrix. A PFZ (precipitate free zone) deficient in γ' (Ni3Al) forms as a band around the TGO, in which the Al component is integrated. Although TGO can resist high temperature corrosion of the top coat, it should also be considered that if its shape is irregular and contains pore defects, it may degrade the blade high temperature creep properties. Compositional and microstructural analysis results for hightemperature corrosion and TGO defects in the blade coating layer used at high temperatures are expected to be applied to sound YSZ coating and blade design technology.
Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) occurring in underground buried pipes of API 5L X65 steel was investigated. MIC is a corrosion phenomenon caused by microorganisms in soil; it affects steel materials in wet atmosphere. The microstructure and mechanical properties resulting from MIC were analyzed by OM, SEM/EDS, and mapping. Corrosion of pipe cross section was composed of ① surface film, ② iron oxide, and ③ surface/internal microbial corrosive by-product similar to surface corrosion pattern. The surface film is an area where concentrations of C/O components are on average 65 %/ 16 %; the main components of Fe Oxide were measured and found to be 48Fe-42O. The MIC area is divided into surface and inner areas, where high concentrations of N of 6 %/5 % are detected, respectively, in addition to the C/O component. The high concentration of C/O components observed on pipe surfaces and cross sections is considered to be MIC due to the various bacteria present. It is assumed that this is related to the heat-shrinkable sheet, which is a corrosion-resistant coating layer that becomes the MIC by-product component. The MIC generated on the pipe surface and cross section is inferred to have a high concentration of N components. High concentrations of N components occur frequently on surface and inner regions; these regions were investigated and Na/Mg/Ca basic substances were found to have accumulated as well. Therefore, it is presumed that the corrosion of buried pipes is due to the MIC of the NRB (nitrate reducing bacteria) reaction in the soil.
교량의 노후화는 다양한 원인에 기인하겠지만 겨울철에 제설용으로 살포하는 염화칼슘이 교량부재에 침투하여 부식을 유발하는 것이 대표적인 교량 노후화 원인중 하나라고 할 수 있다. 본 연구의 목적은 교량의 부식에 의한 노후화 정도를 정량화하고 이를 교량의 해석모델에 적용하여 노후화 정도에 따른 지진취약도 해석을 수행하고 노후화 정도와 지진취약도 곡선의 관계를 평가하는 것이다. 노후화 정도를 고려한 지진취약도 해석에 각 손상상태별로 한계값을 적절히 정의하는 것이 중요하다. 본 연구에서는 손상정도에 따른 변위 연성도 능력의 저하 특성에 관한 기존 연구결과를 활용하여 손상상태를 정의하였다. 세 가지 교량받침과 두 가지 교각 높이에 따른 예제 교량들의 지진취약도 해석으로부터 노후화 정도가 증가할수록 지진취약도가 증가하는 경향이 나타냄을 알 수 있다. 이러 한 노후화 정도에 따른 지진취약도의 차이는 손상상태가 경미, 보통, 심각, 붕괴의 상태로 갈수록 증가하는 경향을 나타낸다.
철근콘크리트 구조물은 반영구적인 구조물로 여겨지고 있으나 해상 구조물 및 해상에 인접한 구조물은 부식에 대한 위험에 노출이 되어 있다. 내륙 구조물의 경우에도 제설제 사용으로 인한 콘크리트의 중성화, 콘크리트 균열 등의 다양한 부식 요인이 발생한다. 또한 건설공사 시 철근은 외부환경에 장시간 노출된 상태로 보관이 되어 부식되기 쉽다. 따라서 본 연구에서 는 철근콘크리트 보의 인장 주철근을 3%와 10%의 부식률로 부식을 시켜 휨 실험을 통해 부식률에 따른 철근콘크리트 보의 휨 거동을 나타내었다. 철근콘크리트 보와 콘크리트 공시체를 동시에 제작하여 재료실험을 수행하였으며, 전위차 부식촉진법을 활용하여 철근콘크리트 보의 부식을 촉진시켰다. 실험결과 부식으로 인해 철근콘크리트 보의 초기 강성이 증가하였으며, 10%의 부식률에서는 철근콘크리트 보의 전단파괴의 발생 및 누적에너지소산능력이 취약하게 나타났다.
본 논문은 철계-형상기억합금(Fe-SMA)의 부식특성을 평가하기 위한 실험적 연구이다. 연구를 수행하기 위해 동전위 분극실험을 통해 Fe-SMA의 부식성능을 평가하였다. 시편을 3전극 플렛셀에 설치 후 전위차계를 이용하여 –200mV∼1000mV 구간의 전위를 2mV/s으 속도로 측정하였다. 기준전극 및 상대전극으로 각각 SCE 기준전극과 백금 와이어를 이용하였다. 동전위 분극곡선 및 타펠 피팅을 이용하여 부식전위 및 부식전류밀도를 측정하였다. Fe-SMA의 부식특성을 직관적으로 확인하기 위해 SD400 철근을 비교군으로 설정하였다. 염화물 환경에서 Fe-SMA의 부식성능을 확인하기 위해 3.5wt% 농도의 NaCl 용액에서 실험을 실시하였으며, 콘크리트 환경에서 Fe-SMA의 부식성능을 확인하기 위해 CaO를 이용하여 수용액의 pH를 13으로 조절하였다. 실험결과 Fe-SMA는 SD400 대비 모든 조건에서 우수한 내부식성이 나타났다. Fe-SMA의 콘크리트 환경에서 내부식성은 우수한 것으로 나타났다. 하지만 Fe-SMA가 염화물에 노출되면 부식저항이 급격히 감소되는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 염화물에 직접적으로 노출되는 환경에서 Fe-SMA를 사용할 경우 부식을 방지하기 위한 적절한 조치가 필요할 것으로 사료된다.
In this study, using the plasma spray method, tensile and compression fatigue tests are performed in saline solution to examine the effect of Ti undercoat on corrosion fatigue behavior of alumina-coated specimens. The alumina-coated material using Ti in the undercoat shows better corrosion fatigue strength than the base material in the entire stress amplitude range. Fatigue cracking of UT specimens occurs in the recess formed by grit-blasting treatment and progresses toward the base metal. Subsequently, the undercoat is destroyed at a stage where the deformation of the undercoat cannot follow the crack opening displacement. The residual stress of the UT specimen has a tensile residual stress up to about 100 μm below the surface of the base material; however, when the depth exceeds 100 μm, the residual stress becomes a compressive residual stress. In addition, the inside of the spray coating film is compressive residual stress, which contributes to improving the fatigue strength characteristics. A hardened layer due to grit-blasting treatment is formed near the surface of the UT specimen, contributing to the improvement of the fatigue strength characteristics. Since the natural potential of Ti spray coating film is slightly higher than that of the base material, it exhibits excellent corrosion resistance; however, when physiological saline intrudes, a galvanic battery is formed and the base material corrodes preferentially.
Martensitic stainless steel is commonly used in the medical implant instrument. The alloy has drawbacks in terms of strength and wear properties when applied to instruments with sharp parts. 440C STS alloy, with improved durability, is an alternative to replace 420 J2 STS. In the present study, the carbide precipitation, and mechanical and corrosion properties of STS 440C alloy are studied as a function of different heat treatments. The STS 440C alloy is first austenitized at different temperatures; this is immediately followed by oil quenching and sub-zero treatment. After sub-zero treatment, the alloy is tempered at low temperatures. The microstructures of the heat treated STS 440C alloy consist of martensite and retained austenite and carbides. Using EDX and SADP with a TEM, the precipitated carbides are identified as a Cr23C6 carbide with a size of 1 to 2 μm. The hardness of STS 440C alloy is improved by austenitization at 1,100 oC with sub-zero treatment and tempering at 200 oC. The values of Ecorr and Icorr for STS 440C increase with austenitization temperature. Results can be explained by the dissolution of Cr-carbide and the increase in the retained austenite. Sub-zero treatment followed by tempering shows a little difference in the properties of potentiodynamic polarizations.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the corrosion damage of large diameter metallic pipes buried in reclaimed land due to the corrosion effect by soil, and to propose a method of installing metal pipes in the reclaimed land. The results are as follow. First, the soil of the reclaimed land was gray clay, the soil specific resistance indicating soil corrosiveness was at least 120 Ω-cm, the pH was weakly acidic(5.04 to 5.60), the redox potential was at least 62 mV, the moisture content was at most 48.8%, and chlorine ions and sulfate ions were up to 4,706.1 mg/kg and 420 mg/kg. Therefore, the overall soil corrosivity score was up to 19, and the external corrosion effect seems to be very large. Second, the condition of straight part of pipes was in good condition, but most of KP joints were affected by corrosion at a severe level. The reason for this seems to be that KP joints accelerated corrosion due to stress and crevice corrosion in addition to galvanic corrosion in the same environment. Third, as a result of evaluating correlations of each item that affects the corrosion on the external part, the lower the soil resistivity and redox potential, the greater the effect on the KP joints corrosion, and the moisture content, chloride ion, and sulfate ion, the higher the value, the greater the effect on the corrosion of KP joints. In addition, among soil corrosion items, the coefficient of determination of soil resistivity with corrosion of KP joints was the highest with 0.6439~0.7672. Fourth, when installing metal pipes or other accessories because the soil of the reclaimed land is highly corrosive, it is necessary to apply a corrosion preventive method to extend the life of pipes and prevent leakage accidents caused by corrosion damage to the joint.
파이프 골조 온실의 내구성 증대를 위하여 4가지의 부식방지 처리를 한 파이프를 실험온실 내부에 설치하여 20년경과 후 표면부식 상태와 강도 변화 실험을 실시하였다. 대기 중에 노출된 지상부위에서 무처리 파이프는 강도가 1.3%정도 줄었지만 다른 처리와의 차이는 거의 없는 것으로 나타났다. 지하 매설부위에서 중방식 처리한 파이프의 강도는 0.6%정도 줄어 거의 변화가 없었으나 무처리는 15.7% 감소하는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 방청 페인트나 아스팔트 도포는 4.2~4.4% 정도 감소하는 것으로 나타났다. 지상부위는 모든 시료에서 심한 부식상태를 보이지 않았다. 중방식 처리는 변화가 없었고, 방청페인트 처리도 녹은 발견되지 않고 약간의 변색만 있었다. 아스팔트 도포는 검게 변색되고 약간의 녹이 발견되었으며, 무처리는 표면의 20~30%정도가 녹슨 것으로 나타났다. 지하 매설부위 무처리 파이프의 경우에는 전체가 완전히 녹슬어 있었고, 아스팔트 도포한 파이프도 표면의 80~90%가 녹슬어 있었다. 방청페인트 처리는 20~30%정도 녹슬어 있었고, 중방식 처리는 거의 변화가 없었다. 중방식 처리는 지하 매설부위에서도 확실한 부식 방지 효과를 보이는 것을 확인할 수 있었고, 방청페인트 처리도 어느 정도 부식 방지 효과를 나타내고 있으므로 현장에 적용할 수 있을 것으로 판단된다.