In this study, the physical properties and fracture characteristics according to the tensile load are evaluated on the materials of the polymeric filler and carbon fiber-based composite sleeve technique. The polymeric filler and the composite sleeve technique are applied to areas where the pipe body thickness is reduced due to corrosion in large-diameter water pipes. First, the tensile strength of the polymeric filler was 161.48~240.43 kgf/cm2, and the tensile strength of the polyurea polymeric filler was relatively higher than that of the epoxy. However, the tensile strength of the polymeric filler is relatively very low compared to ductile cast iron pipes(4,300 kgf/cm2<) or steel pipes(4,100 kgf/cm2). Second, the tensile strength of glass fiber, which is mainly used in composite sleeves, is 3,887.0 kgf/cm2, and that of carbon fiber is up to 5,922.5 kgf/cm2. The tensile strengths of glass and carbon fiber are higher than ductile cast iron pipe or steel pipe. Third, when reinforcing the hemispherical simulated corrosion shape of the ductile cast iron pipe and the steel pipe with a polymeric filler, there was an effect of increasing the ultimate tensile load by 1.04 to 1.06 times, but the ultimate load was 37.7 to 53.7% compared to the ductile cast iron or steel specimen without corrosion damage. It was found that the effect on the reinforcement of the corrosion damaged part was insignificant. Fourth, the composite sleeve using carbon fiber showed an ultimate load of 1.10(0.61T, 1,821.0 kgf) and 1.02(0.60T, 2,290.7 kgf) times higher than the ductile cast iron pipe(1,657.83 kgf) and steel pipe(2,236.8 kgf), respectively. When using a composite sleeve such as fiber, the corrosion damage part of large-diameter water pipes can be reinforced with same level as the original pipe, and the supply stability can be secured through accident prevention.
일반적인 불투과형 사방댐은 제체 대부분이 콘크리트로 구성되어 분리 및 해체가 어려워 조속한 보강이 난해하다는 단점이 있다. 이러한 단점을 보완하기 위한 투과형 강재 스크린 사방댐이 제작되어 사용 중에 있지만, 강재가 부식되는 등 여러 문제를 보이는 실정이다. 이에 따라, 선행 연구에서는 강재 스크린 구조물을 내부식성이 뛰어난 GFRP로 대체하여 성능 및 안전 성을 검증하였지만, 동수압만 고려되는 등 다양한 조건이 고려되지 않은 것으로 확인되었다. 그렇기에 본 연구에서는 선행 연구 에서 수행된 GFRP 스크린 구조물뿐만 아니라, CFRP도 고려하였으며, 보다 다양한 표면 유속 별 하중 조건 및 유목, 토석류 등 과 같은 다양한 조건에서의 성능 비교 및 안전성 평가를 수행하였다. 해석 결과, GFRP와 CFRP는 강재 대비 제체에 작용하는 응력이 29.79∼91.73%가량 감소된 성능을 보이며, 이 외에도 충분한 안전성과 경제성을 겸비함을 확인하였다. 결론적으로 GFRP 및 CFPR 스크린 구조물은 강재 투과형 사방댐을 대체하여 사용하기에 충분하다고 판단되지만, 이는 수치 해석을 통한 결과이 므로 향후 실제 실험이 진행될 필요가 있을 것으로 판단된다.
This study aimed to address the limitations of traditional plasma nitriding methods by implementing a short-term plasma oxy-nitriding treatment on the surface of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel. This treatment involved the sequential formation of nitride and oxide layers, to enhance surface hardness and corrosion resistance, respectively. The process resulted in the formation of a 20 μm-thick nitride layer and a 3 μm-thick oxide layer on the steel surface. Initially, the hardness increased by 2.2 times after nitriding, followed by a subsequent decrease of approximately 31 % after oxidation. While the nitriding process reduced corrosion resistance, the subsequent oxidation process led to the formation of a passive oxide film, effectively resolving this issue. The pitting corrosion of the oxide passive film started at 82.6 mVssc, providing better corrosion resistance characteristics than the nitride layer. Consequently, the trade-off between surface hardness and corrosion resistance in plasma oxy-nitrided AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel is anticipated to be recognized as an innovative and comprehensive surface treatment process for biomedical components.
In order to broaden the range of application of light weight aluminum alloys, it is necessary to enhance the mechanical properties of the alloys and combine them with other materials, such as cast iron. In this study, the effects of adding small amounts of Cu and Zr to the Al-Si-Mg based alloy on tensile properties and corrosion characteristics were investigated, and the effect of the addition on the interfacial compounds layer with the cast iron was also analyzed. Although the tensile strength of the Al-Si-Mg alloy was not significantly affected by the additions of Cu and Zr, the corrosion resistance in 3.5 %NaCl solution was found to be somewhat lowered in this research. The influence of Cu and Zr addition on the type and thickness of the interfacial compounds layer formed during compound casting with cast iron was not significant, and the main interfacial compounds were identified to be Al5FeSi and Al8Fe2Si phases, as in the case of the Al-Si-Mg alloys.
Sealing treatment is a post-surface treatment of the plasma spray coating process to improve the corrosion resistance of the coating material. In this study, the effect of the sealing on the corrosion resistance and adhesive strength of the plasma spray-coated alumina coatings was analyzed. For sealing, an epoxy resin was applied to the surface of the coated specimen using a brush. The coated specimen was subjected to a salt spray test for up to 48 hours and microstructural analysis revealed that corrosion in the coating layer/base material interface was suppressed due to the resin sealing. Measurement of the adhesive strength of the specimens subjected to the salt spray test indicated that the adhesive strength of the sealed specimens remained higher than that of the unsealed specimens. In conclusion, the resin sealing treatment for the plasma spray-coated alumina coatings is an effective method for suppressing corrosion in the coating layer/base material interface and maintaining high adhesive strength.
In this study, corrosion fatigue crack propagation was investigated in pH buffer environment using the giga strength steel and its heat-affected zone, and the results were compared with theoretical model prediction. Also, the pure corrosion effect on fatigue crack propagation in a corrosive environment was compared with the modified Forman equation. As results, the average value of corrosion rate obtained as the ratio of the net corrosion-induced crack length to the total crack length under cyclic loading in the base metal and heat-affected zone under experimental loading conditions. These results exhibit a new theoretical method for corrosion fatigue crack propagation that predicts a purely corrosion effect on the behavior to be determined.
Novel Ni- and Fe-based alloys are developed to impart improved mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. The designed alloys are manufactured as a powder and deposited on a steel substrate using a high-velocity oxygen-fuel process. The coating layer demonstrates good corrosion resistance, and the thus-formed passive film is beneficial because of the Cr contained in the alloy system. Furthermore, during low-temperature heat treatment, factors that deteriorate the properties and which may arise during high-temperature heat treatment, are avoided. For the heattreated coating layers, the hardness increases by up to 32% and the corrosion resistance improves. The influence of the heat treatment is investigated through various methods and is considered to enhance the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the coating layer.
Corrosion is a natural, inevitable process, and is one of the world's most serious problems. Losses incurred due to corrosion are extremely expensive for society. Several technological strategies have been explored and implemented to address these losses. The use of inhibitors to prevent corrosion is a common and efficient method to reduce corrosion losses. This review covers Al and Al-composite corrosion inhibitors in chloride-containing solutions, because of their popularity in a broad array of industrial applications. A vast number of studies in the literature detail the common tendency of Al and Al-composites with reinforcements to deteriorate. Accordingly, it is worthwhile to employ inhibitors to protect them, as discussed in the present work. The emphasis is on selecting the smartest corrosion inhibitor and evaluating its performance. According to the study, the most commonly used corrosion inhibitors are 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), 1,5-naphthalene diol, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (ATAT), ammonium tetrathiotungstate, clotrimazole, amoxicillin, antimicrobial and antifungal drugs. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic (PDP), and weight loss were among the most commonly used modern electrochemical technologies to test inhibitors’ efficacy under environmental conditions.
In this study, defects generated in the YSZ coating layer of the IN738LC turbine blade are investigated using an optical microscope and SEM/EDS. The blade YSZ coating layer is composed of a Y-Zr component top coat layer and a Co component bond coat layer. A large amount of Cr/Ni component that diffused from the base is also measured in the bond coat. The blade hot corrosion is concentrated on the surface of the concave part, accompanied by separation of the coating layer due to the concentration of combustion gas collisions here. In the top coating layer of the blade, cracks occur in the vertical and horizontal directions, along with pits in the top coating layer. Combustion gas components such as Na and S are contained inside the pits and cracks, so it is considered that the pits/cracks are caused by the corrosion of the combustion gases. Also, a thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer of several μm thick composed of Al oxide is observed between the top coat and the bond coat, and a similar inner TGO with a thickness of several μm is also observed between the bond coat and the matrix. A PFZ (precipitate free zone) deficient in γ' (Ni3Al) forms as a band around the TGO, in which the Al component is integrated. Although TGO can resist high temperature corrosion of the top coat, it should also be considered that if its shape is irregular and contains pore defects, it may degrade the blade high temperature creep properties. Compositional and microstructural analysis results for hightemperature corrosion and TGO defects in the blade coating layer used at high temperatures are expected to be applied to sound YSZ coating and blade design technology.
The aim of this review is to communicate some essential knowledge of the underlying mechanism of the corrosion of structural containment alloys during molten salt reactor operation in the context of prospective online monitoring in future MSR installations. The formation of metal halide species and the progression of their concentration in the molten salt do reflect containment corrosion, tracing the depletion of alloying metals at the alloy salt interface will assure safe conditions during reactor operation. Even though the progress of alloying metal halides concentrations in the molten salt do strongly understate actual corrosion rates, their prospective 1st order kinetics followed by near-linearly increase is attributed to homogeneous matrix corrosion. The service life of the structural containment alloy is derived from homogeneous matrix corrosion and near-surface void formation but less so from intergranular cracking (IGC) and pitting corrosion. Online monitoring of corrosion species is of particular interest for molten chloride systems since besides the expected formation of chromium chloride species CrCl2 and CrCl3, other metal chloride species such as FeCl2, FeCl3, MoCl2, MnCl2 and NiCl2 will form, depending on the selected structural alloy. The metal chloride concentrations should follow, after an incubation period of about 10,000 hours, a linear projection with a positive slope and a steady increase of < 1 ppm per day. During the incubation period, metal concentration show 1st order kinetics and increasing linearly with time1/2. Ideally, a linear increase reflects homogeneous matrix corrosion, while a sharp increase in the metal chloride concentration could set a warning flag for potential material failure within the projected service life, e.g. as result of intergranular cracking or pitting corrosion. Continuous monitoring of metal chloride concentrations can therefore provide direct information about the mechanism of the ongoing corrosion scenario and offer valuable information for a timely warning of prospective material failure.
Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) occurring in underground buried pipes of API 5L X65 steel was investigated. MIC is a corrosion phenomenon caused by microorganisms in soil; it affects steel materials in wet atmosphere. The microstructure and mechanical properties resulting from MIC were analyzed by OM, SEM/EDS, and mapping. Corrosion of pipe cross section was composed of ① surface film, ② iron oxide, and ③ surface/internal microbial corrosive by-product similar to surface corrosion pattern. The surface film is an area where concentrations of C/O components are on average 65 %/ 16 %; the main components of Fe Oxide were measured and found to be 48Fe-42O. The MIC area is divided into surface and inner areas, where high concentrations of N of 6 %/5 % are detected, respectively, in addition to the C/O component. The high concentration of C/O components observed on pipe surfaces and cross sections is considered to be MIC due to the various bacteria present. It is assumed that this is related to the heat-shrinkable sheet, which is a corrosion-resistant coating layer that becomes the MIC by-product component. The MIC generated on the pipe surface and cross section is inferred to have a high concentration of N components. High concentrations of N components occur frequently on surface and inner regions; these regions were investigated and Na/Mg/Ca basic substances were found to have accumulated as well. Therefore, it is presumed that the corrosion of buried pipes is due to the MIC of the NRB (nitrate reducing bacteria) reaction in the soil.
교량의 노후화는 다양한 원인에 기인하겠지만 겨울철에 제설용으로 살포하는 염화칼슘이 교량부재에 침투하여 부식을 유발하는 것이 대표적인 교량 노후화 원인중 하나라고 할 수 있다. 본 연구의 목적은 교량의 부식에 의한 노후화 정도를 정량화하고 이를 교량의 해석모델에 적용하여 노후화 정도에 따른 지진취약도 해석을 수행하고 노후화 정도와 지진취약도 곡선의 관계를 평가하는 것이다. 노후화 정도를 고려한 지진취약도 해석에 각 손상상태별로 한계값을 적절히 정의하는 것이 중요하다. 본 연구에서는 손상정도에 따른 변위 연성도 능력의 저하 특성에 관한 기존 연구결과를 활용하여 손상상태를 정의하였다. 세 가지 교량받침과 두 가지 교각 높이에 따른 예제 교량들의 지진취약도 해석으로부터 노후화 정도가 증가할수록 지진취약도가 증가하는 경향이 나타냄을 알 수 있다. 이러 한 노후화 정도에 따른 지진취약도의 차이는 손상상태가 경미, 보통, 심각, 붕괴의 상태로 갈수록 증가하는 경향을 나타낸다.