The most important quality of Moon-Shin's works is 'Symmetry'. That is not like the machines show because it derived from the nature, so it appears little bit different among his each works. As I figured out on my M.A paper, based on the vitalism which have been in Moon-Shin's works, this study intends to find the social meaning of materials that Moon-Shin have chosen for his works which are changed with times despite the works has similar forms. Moon-Shin has tried to express 'harmony' or 'sublime will' which can be recognized as the law of life, since he started the sculptures. After the early period of his art works which used to concrete the vital images, he wanted to express the whole perfect universal world with his sculptures. The sculpture Man of Sun(1970) which has installed in Balcares, France and Olympic1988(1980s) in Seoul, Korea are representative of this period. These two sculpture seem alike for the domed shapes, but each has completely different material such as wood and stainless steel. These difference show the various application of materials, therefore, this study focuses on the relationship between the sculpture material and social background. Perpignan city, located on south part of France(current Balcares) planed to make itself as an art city standing in line with sculpture along the beach, and as a part of this plan, the sculpture symposium had hosted. Moon-Shin invited to this symposium so he made the work Man of Sun(1970) which contained the subject 'Totem', with other seven sculptors. Olympic1988(1980s) is a kind of new version of Man of Sun and it is aimed for celebrating Seoul Olympic. This work was made when Moon-Shin participated in the International sculpture Olympiad, and it has installed in Olympic Park in Seoul permanently. These two sculptures have similar forms but can be classified according to the materials and the location. Therefore, it can be understood as that these two similar sculptures have different social meanings and give unlike sense to audiences. While Man of Sun which is made with African woods represents the oriental spirituality with the metaphor of Totem, Olympic1988 can be read as that Moon-Shin intended to show the status of Korea which has changed internationally after hosting Olympic, throughout the material, stainless steel.
Adrian Piper performed a virtual masculine persona of 'Mythic Being' between 1973 and 1975. She disguised herself with an Afro-wig, sunglasses, a mustache, turtleneck shirt, etc. in order to be 'Mythic Being', hung around the everyday street and carried out performance. She imitated and reproduced a violent, sexual stereotype of a black man of the working class filled with hostility. Through a performance like this, Piper tried to do research on the racial prejudice and stereotypes implanted in the audiences' mind. In addition, Piper was able to experience gender freedom while doing an impersonation of a black man's erotic stereotype through 'Mythic Being', and did an experiment on what sort of liberation such an experience could give her as a black woman. In addition, Piper used an artful practice in 'Mythic Being' performance in an effort to produce contrary evidence that a racial stereotype could by no means represent the true identity of black people. The 'Mythic Being' in <The Mythic Being>series looks like someone who has a short and small body with lighter skin which clouds racial distinguishment despite the fact that it claims to stand for black masculinity. Besides, the Afro-wig and mustache of the 'Mythic Being' are worn awkwardly and exaggeratively as if they didn't belong to it. Such factors hint at the fact that Piper is not completely assimilated to the black masculine persona-'Mythic Being', but simply does an awkward imitation of it. In this way, Piper intended to expose the fact that it is by no means possible to explain the essence of the racial identity simply by using a stereotype while proving that performing a racial stereotype imitatively, though, is enough to acquire specific ethnicity, i.e. negritude.
Bill Viola(1951-) has dealt with the most underlying problems facing human beings-life, death and existence using video as the medium, and Viola tries to find a solution to these problems in nature. In the 1970s when Viola was in full activity, Westerners came to have interest in diverse religions, such as Zen Buddhism in Japan, Taoism and philosophy. In such a social atmosphere, Viola also became interested in the Eastern religions which are in pursuit of the harmony between nature and human beings, thus reflecting this in his works. In other words, Viola, in his works, handles the representative substance elements- ‘water, fire' as main subject matter in an effort to explore the human existence in nature. The ‘water, fire' have frequently come on in myths, religions, history and cultures as the underlying elements forming the human world since ancient times regardless of the East and West. Particularly, Gaston Bachelard(1884-1962) can be pointed out as a representative philosopher among the philosophers who systematized the individual characteristics of water, fire' more concretely by applying them to the human spirit. Bachelard, in the same way as Viola, thinks that human existence bases the source of its root on nature as a human is a part of nature, and tries to look for the source of human existence in the circulation system of the natural elements-‘water, fire' Further, Bachelard applies ‘water, fire' to the human psyche and thinks that should these natural elements be born as a work in communion with an artist's imaginative action, the work would have the strength to communicate feelings to people beyond regions and the ages. Accordingly, this study is aimed at looking into what symbols and meanings such elements manifested in Viola's work have by bringing forth a question about Viola's steady work using the natural elements, ‘water, fire' as subject matter on the basis of Bachelard's argument. Viola is showing the process in which a human is endlessly linked to new creation in the natural circulation system where life and death coexist through ‛water’ and ‘fire’ among natural elements. In other words, Viola is dealing with the source of human existence using the dramatic, restrained image and the natural elements ‘water, fire' discovered in the image. Accordingly, the work of Viola, which throws a basic, intrinsic question, is inducing a variety of audiences' participation away from the boundaries between the East and West and beyond the ages, and suggesting the need to explore the matter of human existence through nature.
This study examines the work of Ed Ruscha (1937-present) and his relationship with the Ferus Gallery that vigorously promoted pop art in the western parts of the US throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Ruscha is a conceptual artist and recognized as an iconic figure in the history of LA pop art. His earlier works formed an organic relationship with the southern Californian area. He chose objects from the elements of pop culture, and worked on a wide array of media including painting, photography, artist books and film. By the 1960s, Ruscha has acquired a status as a significant, influential figure as a pop artist, photographer and conceptual artist. In the 1970s, he exhibited his works at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New York, expanding his influence to the east coast. But it was not until 2004 that his retrospective was held at the New York Whitney Museum. Before that, he was mostly known as an artist based in LA both geographically and in terms of his work. Indeed his better known work was created in LA, especially in the early days. Raised in Oklahoma, Ruscha moved to LA in 1956 to attend an art college at age 19. Seven years later, he had his first solo exhibition at the Ferus Gallery. Familiar with pop art elements of Hollywood, beach scenes, palm trees, film and automobiles, artists from LA established their own identity and art world, set apart from east coast-based artists. In particular, artists that worked with the Ferus Gallery were often associated with masculine images, and they adopted this as their persona. The group of them came to be called the Studs. Meanwhile, Ruscha took a slightly different approach. While blending in with other members of the Studs, he expanded or even overcome the macho image through humor and irony. Alexandra Schwartz did extensive in-depth research on Ed Ruscha, and noted that Ruscha could be understood as a mediating figure of the Ferus Gallery, as he was accepted in both the west and the east coast. Schwartz argued that although Ruscha widely used images of the west, he could take a more neutral perspective than other LA-based artists at the time. To him, LA was home and workplace, but Ruscha refused to play along with the cliché of the macho images. As a representative artist of the Ferus Gallery, Ruscha twisted the meaning of the Ferus Studs, intentionally and strategically, and expressed them in his work. With Jerry McMillan, Ruscha actively engaged in opinion-exchanges and image-creating. He augmented the significance of the Studs, which evolved to be a part of various public images that Ruscha experimented with. Ruscha added a new facet of artistic persona to the Studs. The masculine and aggressive images of the Studs members were reproduced in many photos. While connecting to them for solidarity, Ruscha humorously twisted the images, and moved away from the stereotype. Ruscha was a leading artist for the gallery, and widely experimented with the images of the Studs in his work.
French-born Saint Orland (1947 –) showed the performance of getting cosmetic surgery on her face broadcast live via satelliteto the audience in various regions including Pompidou Center in Paris, and also the scene of herself bleeding on the operating table as a picture. Not only art books but also People’s Magazine deal with such operating scenes importantly but the general public showed the suspicion of how the works of art could come to such a state. Actually, the meaning of Orland’s surgery performance was overshadowed by the medical operation named cosmetic surgery compared with the popular awareness. Orland’s surgery performance is part of the project called The Reincarnation of Saint Orland thatactually began on her 43rd birthday in 1990 and was performed nine times until 1993. Despite the fact that it is one of her various performances using her body and a kind of method, I wonder why The Reincarnation of Saint Orland is perceived andrepresented as a mere medical technique of modern society called "cosmetic surgery." The reasons can be thought of from two points of view. First, it is because of the influence that "cosmetic surgery"exerts on the mass society. Due to the cosmetic surgery, she drew the public’s attention such as her stories being published not only in art books but also in People’s Magazine. The Reincarnation of Saint Orland can be said to be represented by the word "cosmetic surgery" in that she has taken the approach of cosmetic surgery that exerts an enormousinfluence on the mass society. Second, it is perceived as cosmetic surgery for a negative reason. Orland tried to make her own face by borrowing the faces of the women idealized in the famous works of art in art history. So the art world including feminism artists criticized Orland that she tried to become more beautiful by the standards of beauty defined by the male-dominated society. If so, isn’t there other art historical meanings, getting rid of the feministic meaning, in <The Reincarnation of Saint Orland>? It is considered that clue can be found in Orland’s words that have made the feministic art world criticize Orland incalculably. "My works of art do not resist cosmetic surgery. My works of art challenges the standards of beauty imposed on the woman’s body and challenges the dominant ideology." What she mentioned like this tries to make people recognize that she is not to become a symbol of submission herself, but the art world focuses its criticism on what she tries to challenge by complying with the standards of beauty defined by men. This thesis explains that coming to modern art beyond those criticisms of her, Orland actually understood the entire Western art history by accepting it as the history of human body, and focuses on her trying to present a new concept by her own body. She absorbs the past and modern art by her own body and disfigures it and tried to create new art, i.e. carnal art. Carnal art shows the freedom from sufferings imposed on human body and due to this, it tries to give birth to self separated from one’s own body This is considered the art historical concept with regard to The Reincarnation of Saint Orland, in which the aesthetics of body shown by Orland has been regarded as mere surgeries to become beautiful, no more, no less.
John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress, first published in 1678, has played an important role in Christian mission work and is remembered as one of the first modern novels. In 1830 the book was entitled the ‘English Literature Cannon,’ and has been translated into many languages, second only to the Bible. This honor and popularity is due mainly to Bunyan's fine writing style and fertile literary imagination; however, the illustrations added to each version and print - that is, the visualizations of the content - were crucial to maintaining popular interest in and understanding of the book. Illustrations can have a major influence on the reputation and authority of a book. However, researches on book illustrations are rarely found in Korean scholarly works. As a foundational research, therefore, this article explores the illustrations of various prints of The Pilgrim’s Progress by six artists and role and development of the illustrations, consulting works of Gerda S. Norvig on the subject. Illustrations first appeared in the fourth edition of the book in 1680, two years after the first edition. Although the book had only two drawings, the event became the critical moment for the gradual emergence of book illustrations which also influenced and changed the constitution of the book itself. Of the illustrations in the book’s early days, it was the fourteen drawings in the fifth edition (1682) that first covered and visualized the general content of the book. But because adding book illustrations was a new development, the illustrations were far from eloquent and skillful in their design and carving technique. Three years later, a Flemish-French translation of the book appeared with nine illustrations by a Dutch poet and engraver Jan Luiken. These illustrations, engraved out of copper plates, show an advancement in the expression and technology of craftsmanship. In the eighteenth century, John Sturt’s fourteen illustrations were included in the 22nd edition, so-called the Queen Caroline edition (1728). The illustrations are praised for their unique aesthetical elements while maintaining the tradition of former editions. In 1788 eight drawings by Thomas Stothard were issued separately from the 1788 edition. Compared with the craftwork on the former illustrations, the painter prettified the design, which still remained in the tradition of genre-painting. Stothard's illustrations became popular, deeply influencing illustrations in the coming ages. In the nineteenth century, the number of illustrations in The Pilgrim’s Progress increased while qualitative changes also appeared. In 1824 painter William Blake produced 28 mysterious watercolor illustrations based on his meditation and imagination. Henry Courtney Selous' 58 illustrations were placed in the 1844 Rev. Maguire annotated edition. Despite the busy composition, his works are acclaimed as expressing the theme of the book in distinct and dynamic ways. Throughout the three centuries of the book’s history, it was the famous artists of the age that improved the quality and creativity of the illustrations of The Pilgrim’s Progress. The illustrations in the book had been drawing the attention of readers to the text and leading them to understand briefly the pilgrimage to the Celestial City, regardless of readers’ literacy. Particularly in the nineteenth century, the illustrations themselves were recognized and developed as an independent field, not as a part of the book. The drawings now spoke for themselves apart from the text, and people could comprehend the whole story only by appreciating the images. Surely, the story of the book in visualized illustrations imprinted smoothly in the reader’s memories. This article also briefly deals with the American illustrations of The Pilgrim's Progress.