This research is an exploratory study that examined how users perceive and evaluate voice assistants differently from websites. Interviews revealed that users of voice assistants apply social norms to a machine. They used social perception descriptors and addressed the voice assistant as an autonomous, female agent and developed social relationships.
The concept of co-creation with consumers has been extensively studied in the literature documented in innovation management and marketing literatures. In this study, we contribute to the literature threefold. First, we develop a model to investigate how co-creation with fans enhance purchase intent and engagement of other customers. Second, we test the model using the data collected from consumers on four different product categories including beer, car, cosmetics and travel. By doing so, we examine the differences between product vs. service as well as different product categories. Third, we will compare the results with that of ordinary consumers to check if there are any differences in the case of co-creating with fans. Most of the extant studies have found a positive effect of co-creation on the outcome evaluation. However, engaging other consumers by co-creation with fans has not been studied. For bridging this research gap, we developed a conceptual model to investigate the antecedents and consequences of co-creation with fans. The hypotheses are as follows. H1: Product class involvement and domain specific knowledge affect perception on co-creation positively. H2: Perception on co-creation affects purchase intent and word-of-mouth positively. H3: The relationships of H1 and H2 differs depending on product categories. H4: The relationships of H1 and H2 differs if companies work with ordinary customers or fans. We tested the hypotheses with the data collected from consumers an online questionnaire survey. Data collection was conducted through a market research agency in 2016 for beer and cars, and in 2019 for cosmetics and travel. The data was collected from 240 consumers in their 20s, 30s, and 40s in Japan. Each segment has same number of males and females, 40 people each for six segments. The findings shed a new light on the co-creation literature and help companies to design better co-creation with fans in different product and service categories.
Physical stores are significant contact points for customers to have unique shopping experience with hedonic values (Hirschman and Holbrook, 1982). The value is becoming even more important as a differentiating factor for companies in the digital era when e-commerce is dramatically expanding and growing (Kotler, Kartajaya, and Setiawan, 2017). In order to deepen our understanding on online for offline (O4O) shopping experience, we focus on Visual Merchandizing Design (VMD) as one of the key factors to differentiate physical stores from e-commerce. VMD has a long history since 18th century VMD and has been extensively researched in various ways, but no study has been done in the setting of online for offline (O4O). VMD is defined as an art of displaying the things in a manner to attract the attention of the customer and persuade them to buy the product (Kerfoot, Davies, and Ward, 2003; Krishnakumar, 2014). In the VMD's extant research, many suggest the importance of VMD from the viewpoint of experiential marketing. It has been discussed that VMD is an effective way to impress consumers with company brands (e.g., Kim and Kim, 2011; Park and Jeon, 2004 Sun and Lee, 2017). In order to analyze the effectiveness of VMD, we use the three elements commonly used in practice that include Visual Presentation (VP), Point of Sales Presentation (PP), and Item Presentation (IP). The role of Visual Presentation (VP) is to invite customers from outside to inside of the store. When a customer enters the store, it is expected to encourage customers to stay longer to look around through PP (Point of sales Presentation). Finally, attractive Item Presentation (IP) on the shelves or hangers encourages customers to purchase products. We combine this VP-PP-IP framework of VMD with New AIDA model proposed by Iwamoto, Kawakami and Suzuki (2016). New AIDA model is a revised version of AIDMA that incorporates online related factors such as search, keep and share. Using this framework, we conducted three case studies on JINS BRAIN Lab by JINS Inc. in Japan, LAB101 in South Korea and On and the Beauty by Lotte Shopping in South Korea. We visited the store to observe how these companies realize the elements of VMD (VP-PP-IP) at each store. The results suggest that, for the better O4O experience to shop at a physical store looking at a mobile device, companies need to design the store from VMD point of view in addition to data-driven or artificial intelligence supported merchandizing. Physical stores with better VMD also play a significant role for generating word-of-mouth for engaging other customers.
The retailing industry is experiencing a significant transformation driven by e-commerce adoption and tech-innovations; being under pressure to provide exciting and memorable shopping experiences that lead to customer acquisition and brand loyalty. This paper depicts three innovative retail solutions from Australia for business growth through strategic implementation of technology, in-store design and customer engagement.
Mobile channels have dramatically revolutionized how brands connect with consumers. Indeed, smartphones, tablets or any portable device present marketers the possibility to contact consumers at any time and any place. Notwithstanding the opportunities deriving from being constantly in touch with consumers, two major challenges are anyway represented by the need of avoiding consumers’ annoyance with too much information and by the one to differentiate from competitors’ messages. Hence, how to catch recipients’ attention is fundamental to develop effective mobile communication strategies. In this perspective, gamification could be a competitive hedge in current digital environments. Namely, gamification has been identified as the use of attractive and addictive characteristics of games in different context such as advertising messages. As of today, extant literature on the topic mostly focused on the analysis of different motivations to use gamified mobile channels (i.e. hedonic, utilitarian motivations) as well as the factors amplifying the effects of gamification on the persuasiveness of marketing messages (i.e. the design of the gamified mobile advertising). Accordingly, we argue that gamification could help to catch consumers’ attention and influence their engagement with the message and purchase intention. Previous studies, indeed, have not analyzed the factors -such as engagement- potentially mediating the relationship between consumers’ intention to use mobile channels and advertising effectiveness. Next, whether gamified advertising could influence consumers’ purchase intention has yet to be assessed. Moving from such two gaps, this research focuses on the importance of gamification in advertising research. In detail, this research develops and tests a model where consumers’ perceived gamification (measured thanks to the GAMEX scale) as well as consumers’ engagement mediate the relationship between consumer motivations to use a mobile channel, advertising effectiveness and consumers’ purchase intention. Consumers’ expertise in mobile technologies is considered as a moderating variable in the relationship. Structural equation modelling with a sample of 590 Italian millennials, the most technology savvy consumers cohort (thus, the one mostly using mobile channels), has been used to test the hypotheses of the study. Results of the analysis allowed to proposed several implications for advertising theory and practice.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate factors driving parasocial relationships and their effect on brand equity. A conceptual model including the following variables is proposed: opinion leader attributes, parasocial relationship, brand equity and the moderating effect of endorser-brand congruency. The proposed research model is analyzed using a survey of 301 Chinese consumers. Structural equation modelling is employed to examine the hypothesized relationships among all variables. The findings show that the opinion leader attributes of expertise and exploration positively affect the parasocial relationship between consumers and the endorser, and the parasocial relationship and brand equity are positively associated. Furthermore, endorser-brand congruency acts as a moderator on the relationship between opinion leader attributes and the parasocial relationship. The implications, limitations, and discussions are provided.
Introduction “In a world where mobile has become our primary device, marketers should think about mobile as a sound off environment, where users hate being interrupted with sound.” －Caroline Hugonenc (2019), Global VP Research & Insights at Teads.tv The soundless video ad is the new trend online ad that received little attention (Campbell & Pearson, 2019). Facing the new trend of soundless video ads, this research aims to explore how to improve consumers’ attitudes toward soundless video ads by manipulating subtitle. Drawn on process fluency theory (Reber et al., 2004), this research aims to answer three research questions to help practitioners design effective soundless video ads. RQ1: Can adding subtitle to a soundless video advertisement (ad) increase consumers’ positive attitude? RQ2: Does the font type of subtitle influence consumers’ attitude? RQ3: Does the interaction effect of font type and subtitle position influence consumers’ attitude?
Online search advertising (aka, sponsored or paid search advertising) is a technology that any matched advertisement is displayed on Web pages as online users’ query results from search engines and Web portals (e.g., Google, Bing, Baidu, Naver, and Yahoo!). In specific, after online users type search keywords on the search box (at this stage, online users become searchers), search engines match users’ query texts to phrases included in search advertisement. Then, if an advertiser’s investment on her/his search advertisement is high enough, the advertisement is likely to be displayed on a search engine results (called “impression”) (Hanson and Kalyanam 2007; Jansen et al. 2009; Jansen and Clark 2017; Moore, Stammerjohan, and Coulter 2005). Once a searcher clicks a displayed advertisement and arrives on the advertiser’s landing page, s/he becomes a visitor by clicking the impression. As benefits of utilizing search keywords, online search advertising can reduce search costs and increase information accessibility by potential customers. In addition, because online search advertising provides relevant search results based on the users’ own queries, it is considered less intrusive than banner advertisement and widely used by many marketers (Ghose and Yang 2009; Johnson, Bruner, and Kumar 2006; Quinton and Khan 2009; Rangaswamy, Giles, and Seres 2009; Yang and Ghose 2010).
This research examines the relationships among consumption values, affective responses, and patronage intention for luxury brands. The study found that the consumption values positively influenced the consumer engagement and the flow, which in turn had a significant impact on the patronage intention, respectively. The affective responses exercised an important role as mediating variables.
This paper presents comprehensive knowledge regarding dark patterns in OTA websites. The study further examines how hotels use dark pattern tactics as a marketing tool to influence consumers’ buying behavior in OTA websites by adopting stimulus-organism-response theory. The paper develops propositions and identifies potential moderators.
Employing national consumer panels in the US and Korea (N = 767), this research examined how consumer evaluations of graphic sexual ads on social media differ from those of non-sexual ads, and to what extent such evaluations are influenced by different cultural backgrounds (Individualism vs. Confucianism) and sexual self-schema (SSS) levels.
The humor appeal is extensively used in advertising, but its impact is not clearly understood in the context of luxury brand advertising. This research therefore examines the role humor appeal in luxury advertising plays in customers’ evaluation of the brand, advertisement, and purchase behaviors toward the firm. Specifically, this study proposes that the use of a humor appeal in luxury advertising has a favorable influence on perceived luxuriousness of the brand, attitude toward the advertisement, and purchase intention through coolness perception of the luxury brand. Furthermore, this study explores the moderating roles of brand positioning appeal (top-dog vs. underdog) and desire for distinction. This study is one of the few to examine the influence of humor appeal in luxury brand advertising, providing evidence for the applicability of humor appeal in luxury advertising. The study findings will help luxury brand managers make informed decisions about when and how to use humor in advertising to achieve desirable advertising outcomes.
The implications of brand hypocrisy for corporate social responsibility (CSR) at the brand level of analysis remain largely unexplored. Drawing on attribution theory and the sense making perspective of CSR, this paper aims to develop a conceptual framework that highlights the negative effects of advertising skepticism on brand distance, as mediated by perceptions of brand hypocrisy. Furthermore, the study seeks to examine whether a brand’s commitment toward sustainability, consumers’ desire for exclusivity and brand trust have any impact on perceived brand hypocrisy and distance. As the effect of CSR skepticism and brand hypocrisy bears heavily on consumers’ attitudes and behaviour, this paper draws from several socio-psychological theories to identify how it can be pre-emptively abated. Findings will enrich the understanding of negative consumer inferences related to brands and provide a conceptualization of an understudied but increasingly relevant form of brand judgment.
In this study, we theorize that the way consumers communicate on social media (“liking”2 vs. posting) leads to consequential preferences for luxury products. Specifically, for light users, who spend less than one hour on social media, “liking” (vs. posting) strengthens (vs. weakens) preference for social value-framed luxury products (i.e., creates a good impression to others) compared to functional value-framed products (i.e., superior quality). This contrasts with heavy users, who spend more than two hours on social media, where posting (vs. “liking”) strengthens (vs. weakens) preference for social value-framed luxury products compared to functional value-framed products. Thus, the relationship between social media interaction (“liking” vs. posting) and preference for luxury products is conditionally mediated by communication expectation with others. Both the direct effect and indirect effect are moderated by the time spent on social media and luxury value type.
While many marketing researchers conceptualize the binary split between luxury and non-luxury consumers, this paper takes the more refined approach of the heterogenization of the luxury consumer segment by exploring the progressive stages of luxury consumer maturity, reflected by diverging luxury consumption behavior. An argument for a progression of maturity is presented here in terms of making purchases of well-known luxury brands (e.g., Louis Vuitton or Prada) versus more obscure luxury brands (e.g., Marni or Ann Demeulemeester). As brands continue to be acquired by conglomerates (e.g. LVMH, Kering Group, Richemont, etc.), a perspective from luxury holding companies was a logical starting point. In each holding company’s portfolio, brands represent different positions, with the well-known brands occupying the flagship positions within the conglomerate. These brands capitalize on overt usage of branding and logo (which we term as Stage 1 brands). More obscure companies within the major conglomerates or independent fashion houses tend to rely less on branding and have a greater focus on savoir faire and technical applications of material and cut, requiring a higher degree of fashion knowledge (termed here as Stage 3 brands). Stage 2 brands represent the cohort of fashion houses that exist as non-flagship brands within the context of a larger conglomerate. To categorize each participant based on their shopping patterns, we calculate a metric termed here as a “maturity ratio” that falls between 1 and 3 and is used to assign each consumer to a stage. Therefore, we put forth the following hypotheses: Fashion knowledge is the mediating variable that drives progression of consumer maturity. That is, the higher a consumer’s knowledge about fashion, the more mature and discriminating the consumer’s tastes and shopping patterns will be [H1]. Materialism works to encourage consumers to learn more about fashion and therefore have higher fashion knowledge [H2]. A high consumer need-for-uniqueness (CNFU) will lead consumers to learn more about fashion in order to discover ways to stand out from the norm [H3]. Consumers who are self-conscious will have high fashion knowledge due to the pressures of social anxiety to have a socially acceptable outward appearance [H4].
Marketing communication has undergone significant transformation in recent years. Influencers, who generate content on social networking sites (SNSs), have had a dramatic impact on consumers’ purchase decisions. Brands and marketers are therefore the most effective and powerful marketing tools. Social media influencers, so-called “YouTubers,” have become online opinion leaders by creating and posting content on social media, in contrast to celebrities who are well-known via traditional media in general. Previous studies regarding influencers have focused on the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of influencer marketing across various contexts or person-related factors. However, previous studies have not only elicited mixed findings concerning the effects of influencer marketing, but also reveal a lack of basic understanding of the mechanisms by which video content and influencers themselves impact consumer, particularly in the high-end product industry. Present-day social media influencers are not only information providers but also friendly communicators rather than inaccessible celebrities. Favorable attitudes towards influencers may play a crucial role in consumer behavior when purchasing high-end products in which have high prices and uncertainties. While some studies include the construct of the perception of influencers in their models, there is a lack of research on the effect of influencers and video content. Thus, we expect our empirical research to provide a comprehensive understanding of the nature of social contagion, which is highlighted by social media influencers.
Professional sport leagues are both commercial products and public products. As China’s sports leagues transition from state-governed properties to a more commercial model, professional sports are facing a crucial turning point on balancing stakeholders pertaining to its commercial/market value and social value. How to develop a sustainable business and management model of professional sports teams, fitting Chinese culture and the calls on free economy, has become a major challenge to scholars, practitioners and entrepreneurs in China’s sport industry. Every organisation has its relationships with many groups ("stakeholders") that affect and are affected by its decisions, which are dynamic in a constantly changing world. Stakeholder theory was developed through concerns regarding the nature of these relationships in terms of both processes and outcomes for both organisation and stakeholders, and the changing nature of the environment.
Social marketing, a behaviour change discipline that originated in marketing, has contributed to a better world delivering positive health, environmental and social outcomes over the past 60 years. While successes are documented, failures are also evident, and delivery of cost-efficient, feasible, and maintainable programs has been called for. While the benefits of applying social marketing benchmark criteria (BC) are verified, roadmaps for how to apply BC in behaviour change program design are not apparent. This paper marks a first attempt at applying BC to co-create a social marketing program. A conceptual model that applies eight BC across four studies; 1) Systematic quantitative literature review, 2) Segmentation study, 3) Expert panel reviews, and 4) Co-design workshops is proposed. This paper offers a reseacrh process that researchers and/or practitioners can apply to develop behaviour change programs with the aim of achieving enhanced program outcomes. Moving forward the proposed model will need to be tested and replicated in field to verify the effectiveness of applying eight BC within the program design process.
This research tests the roles of vertical versus horizontal collectivism in affecting the relationships between place attachment, perceived environmental responsibility and pro-environmental behaviour. In doing so, the research addresses the boundary conditions for the attachment-behaviour link and provides guidance for implementing environmental policies using place attachment as the policy tool.
The study applies the concept of consumer innovativeness to predict Indian consumers’ purchase intention of electric car and wood fibre-based clothing. Consumers with high novelty seeking attitudes appear to be early adopters of these two eco-innovations suggesting that marketers need to highlight the novelty attributes of these sustainable products.