Recently, composite beams have been developed in which concrete is filled in a U-shaped steel plate for saving height of story. And due to high flexural stiffness and bending strength, it is widely applied in the field where high load and long span are required. The AU composite beam was improved the instability of the existing beams because it makes a closed section by attaching a cover type shear connection to the existing U - shaped composite beam with open upper section. In this study, AU composite beam resisted by composite-section during the using phase was evaluated the safety through the finite element analysis. The analysis is performed on the five specimens of AU composite beams according to applied deck-system and compared with the results of 2 - point bending test. As a result of the analysis, behavior of beam was shown by integrated composite section. And the evaluation of flexible capacity was p
The SLIM AU composite beam consists of U-shaped steel plate, A-shaped steel cap and infilled concrete. The bottom steel plate acts as tension bars, and the top steel cap takes roles of shear connector and compression bars in the conventional reinforced concrete section. In this paper the shear strength of this composite beam with closed steel section has been evaluated through the concentrated loading shear experiments. Test results under the symmetrical and asymmetrical loading conditions were compared with the predicted values based on the KBC 2016. The composite beam showed the greater shear strength capacities than those of the theoretical evaluation.
The objective of this study is to analysis the mechanical characteristics and nonlinear behaviors on the geometric nonlinear behavior of a cable spoke wheel roof system for long span lightweight roof structures. The weight of a cable spoke wheel roof dramatically can reduce and the cable roof system can easily make the required rigidity and shape by the sag ratio and pretension forces. Determining the pretension and initial sag of cable roof system is essential in a design process and the shape of roof is changed by pretension. The nonlinear behavior of flexible cable system has greatly an affect on the sag and pretension. This paper will be carried out analyzing and comparing the tensile forces and deflection of a cable spoke wheel system for the large span retractable roof, and analyzed to deflections and tensile forces by the post height of center hub. The double arrangement of a spoke wheel system with reverse curvature works more effectively as a load bearing system, the pretension can easily increase the structural stiffness. The cable truss system can carry vertical load in up and downward direction, and act effectively as load bearing elements.
This study was attempted to evaluate the change of microbial community in inoculums, lag, and stationary phase using the community level physiological profiles (CLPP) base on C-substrate utilization. It was to ascertain the characterizing microbial community over time in the enrichment step of microbial fuel cells. Microbial fuel cell is a device that converts chemical energy to electricity with aid of the catalytic reaction of microorganisms using C-substrate included wastewater. Microbial fuel cells enriched by a mixture of anaerobic digestive sludge of the sewage treatment plant and livestock wastewater were used. The current after enrichment was generated about 0.84 ± 0.06 mA. Microbial community in inoculums, lag and stationary phase used amine group, phosphorylated chemical group, and carboxylic acid group (some exclusion). However, phenolic compound did not use by microorganisms in lag and stationary phase. It means that there are not the microorganisms capable of decompose the phenol in microbial fuel cell enriched by livestock wastewater. In case of substrates of amino acid and carbohydrates group, these C-substrates were only used by microorganisms in the stationary phase. It may be that electrochemically active microorganisms (EAM) which we want to know should utilize the better these C-substrates than that of lag phase. This study showed that the electrochemically active bacteria that can be distinguished by electron changes of C-substrate utilization over time could be separated.
The Government had devised legislation of Special Act and drew up guidelines for improving air quality in Seoul Metropolitan area. In 2007 local government of Seoul, Incheon and Gyeonggi conducted the results of application policy by reduced air pollutants emission for the first time. Although there was reduction of air pollutant emission in each local government, it was ineffective as expected using air pollution monitoring database. Therefore we worked out a way to prepare modeling input data using the results of enforcement plan. And we simulated surface NO_2 and PM10 before and after decrease in air pollutants emission and examine reduction effects of air pollution according to enforcement regulation except other influence, by using MM5-SMOKE-CMAQ system.
Each local government calculated the amount of emission reduction under application policy, and we developed to prepare input data so as to apply to SMOKE system using emission reduction of enforcement plan. Distribution factor of emission reduction were classified into detailed source and fuel codes using code mapping method in order to allocate the decreased emission. The code mapping method also included a way to allocate spatial distribution by CAPSS distribution. According to predicted result using the reduction of NOx emission, NO_2 concentration was decreased from 19.1 ppb to 18.0 ppb in Seoul. In Gyeonggi and Incheon NO_2 concentrations were down to 0.65 ppb and 0.68 ppb after application of enforcement plan. PM10 concentration was reduced from 18.2 ㎍/㎥ to 17.5 ㎍/㎥ in Seoul. In Gyeonggi PM10 concentration was down to 0.51 ㎍/㎥ and in Incheon PM10 concentration was decreased about 0.47 ㎍/㎥ which was the lower concentration than any other cities.