The Crab nebula is widely used as a polarization angle calibrator for single-dish radio observations because of its brightness, high degree of linear polarization, and well-known polarization angle over a wide frequency range. However, the Crab nebula cannot be directly used as a polarization angle calibrator for single-dish observations with the Korean VLBI Network (KVN), because the beam size of the telescopes is smaller than the size of the nebula. To determine the polarization angle of the Crab nebula as seen by KVN, we use 3C 286, a compact polarized extragalactic radio source whose polarization angle is well-known, as a reference target. We observed both the Crab nebula and 3C 286 with the KVN from 2017 to 2021 and find that the polarization angles at the total intensity peak of the Crab nebula (equatorial coordinates (J2000) R.A. = 05h34m32.3804s and Dec = 22◦00′44.0982′′) are 154.2◦ ±0.3◦, 151.0◦ ±0.2◦, 150.0◦ ±1.0◦, and 151.3◦ ±1.1◦ at 22, 43, 86, and 94 GHz, respectively. We also find that the polarization angles at the pulsar position (RA = 05h34m31.971s and Dec = 22◦00′52.06′′) are 154.4◦ ±0.4◦, 150.7◦ ±0.4◦, and 149.0◦ ± 1.0◦ for the KVN at 22, 43, and 86 GHz. At 129 GHz, we suggest to use the values 149.0◦ ± 1.6◦ at the total intensity peak and 150.2◦ ± 2.0◦ at the pulsar position obtained with the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimeter Range (IRAM) 30-meter Telescope. Based on our study, both positions within the Crab nebula can be used as polarization angle calibrators for the KVN single-dish observations.
Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) is one of the most frequently consumed leafy vegetables globally, as it contains numerous nutrients; essential amino acids, phenolics, vitamins, and minerals, and is particularly rich in glucosinolates. However, the differences in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates and related gene expression among kale cultivars has been poorly reported. In this study, we investigated glucosinolates profile and content in three different kale cultivars, including green (‘Man-Choo’ and ‘Mat-Jjang’) and red kale (‘Red-Curled’) cultivars grown in a vertical farm, using transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. The growth and development of the green kale cultivars were higher than those of the red kale cultivar at 6 weeks after cultivation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed five glucosinolates in the ‘Man-Choo’ cultivar, and four glucosinolates in the ‘Mat-Jjang’ and ‘Red-Curled’ cultivars. Glucobrassicin was the most predominant glucosinolate followed by gluconastrutiin in all the cultivars. In contrast, other glucosinolates were highly dependent to the genotypes. The highest total glucosinolates was found in the ‘Red-Curled’ cultivar, which followed by ‘Man-Choo’ and ‘Mat-Jjang’. Based on transcriptome analysis, eight genes were involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis. The overall results suggest that the glucosinolate content and accumulation patterns differ according to the kale cultivar and differential expression of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes.
In addition to Korea, various countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and China are designing small module-type reactors. In particular, a small modular reactor is the power of 300 MWe or less, in which the main equipment constituting the nuclear reactor is integrated into a single container. Depending on the purpose, small modular reactors are being developed to help daily life such as power, heating supply, and seawater desalination, or for power supply such as icebreakers, nuclear submarines, and spacecraft propellants. Small modular reactors are classified according to form. It can be classified into light-water reactors/ pressurized light-water reactors based on technology proven in commercial reactors, and non-lightwater reactors based on fuel and coolant type such as Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor, High temperature gas-cooled reactor, Very high temperature reactor and Moltenn salt reactor. SMRs, which are designed for various purposes, have the biggest difference from commercial nuclear reactors. The size of SMRs is as small as 1/5 of that of the commercial reactors. Several modules may be installed to generate the same power as commercial reactors. Because of the individually operation for each module, load follow is possible. Also, The reactor can be cooled by natural convection because the size is small enough. It is manufactured as a module, the construction period can be reduced. Depending on the characteristics of these SMRs, application for safeguards is considered. There are many things to consider in terms of safeguards. Therefore, it is IAEA inspection or other approaches for SMRs installed and remotely operated in isolated areas, data integrity for remote monitoring equipment to prevent the diversion of nuclear materials, verification method and material accountancy and control for new fuel types and reactors. Since SMR is more compact and technical intensive, safeguards should be considered at the design stage so that safeguards can be efficiently and effectively implemented, which is called the Safeguards by design (SBD) in the IAEA. In this paper, according to the characteristics of SMR, we will analyze the advantages/disadvantages from the point of view of safeguards and explain what should be considered.
글루탐산은 식물의 생장과 발달에 중요한 역할을 하는 필수 아미노산의 전구체이며, 저온 보호 물질로 이어지는 생합성 경로를 자극하여 저온 피해를 줄이는 생물자극제 중 하나이 다. 본 연구에서는 저온 스트레스 조건에서 글루탐산 엽면 처 리가 배추에 미치는 영향을 평가하였다. 글루탐산 2가지 엽면 시비 농도(0 및 10mg·L-1)와 3가지 주/야간 온도 수준(11/－1 °C extremely low, E; 16/4°C moderately low, M; 21/9°C optimal, O)을 결합하여 6개의 처리가 수행되었다. 글루탐산 의 엽면 처리는 정식 후 10일에 1회 살포하고, 글루탐산 처리 직후 온도 처리는 최대 4일 동안 실시하였다. 처리 4일 후, ABA, PA, DPA 및 ABA-GE 함량은 M 처리에서 Glu 0 처리 보다 Glu 10 처리에서 함량이 더 높았다. Glucose 함량은 E 및 Glu 10 처리에서 가장 높은 반면(52.1mg·100g-1 dry weight), fructose 함량은 O 및 Glu 0 처리에서 함량이 가장 높았다 (134.6mg·100g-1 dry weight). GLP, GBS, 4MGBS, GNBS 및 GNS 함량은 E 및 Glu 10 처리에서 모든 처리 중 가장 높았 다(0.72, 2.05, 1.67, 9.40 및 0.85μmol·g-1 dry weight). 처리 2일 후 E 및 Glu 10 처리의 PA와 DPA함량에서 급격한 변화 를 확인하였고, 몇몇 개별 glucosinolate 함량(GLP, GBS, 4MGBS, GNBS 및 GNS)은 저온과 글루탐산 처리에 따라 유 의적 차이를 확인할 수 있었다. 또한, fructose는 glucose 대신 fructan을 에너지원으로 사용하였기 때문에 처리 4일후 E와 M처리에서 O 처리에 비하여 유의적으로 낮은 함량을 보였다. 따라서, 저온과 글루탐산 엽면 처리에 따른 PA, DPA, glucose, fructose 및 개별 glucosinolate 물질들의 변이를 확 인하였지만, 저온과 글루탐산의 효과에 관한 명확한 상관관계를 평가할 수는 없었다. 배추과 작물은 호냉성 채소로서 저 온에 민감하게 반응하지 않고, 대부분 내한성을 가지고 있기 때문으로 판단된다.
Non-destructive estimation of leaf area is a more efficient and convenient method than leaf excision. Thus, several models predicting leaf area have been developed for various horticultural crops. However, there are limited studies on estimating the leaf area of strawberry plants. In this study, we predicted the leaf areas via nonlinear regression analysis using the leaf lengths and widths of three-compound leaves in five domestic strawberry cultivars (‘Arihyang’, ‘Jukhyang’, ‘Keumsil’, ‘Maehyang’, and ‘Seollhyang’). The coefficient of determination (R2) between the actual and estimated leaf areas varied from 0.923 to 0.973. The R2 value varied for each cultivar; thus, leaf area estimation models must be developed for each cultivar. The leaf areas of the three cultivars ‘Jukhyang’, ‘Seolhyang’, and ‘Maehyang’ could be non-destructively predicted using the model developed in this study, as they had R2 values over 0.96. The cultivars ‘Arihyang’ and ‘Geumsil’ had slightly low R2 values, 0.938 and 0.923, respectively. The leaf area estimation model for each cultivar was coded in Python and is provided in this manuscript. The estimation models developed in this study could be used extensively in other strawberry-related studies.