Purpose: To develop a tool for measuring peripheral intravenous catheter insertion performance.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Initial items were generated using existing guidelines and tools, and 19 experts assessed content validity. Data were collected from a tertiary hospital in D city from January 17, 2018, to October 20, 2019. The data of 365 nurses were used for principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation. Concurrent validity was confirmed using Pearson’s correlation between the developed tool and the nursing career period. Reliability was confirmed after evaluating internal consistency.
Results: Initially, 16 items were generated, but three items were deleted in content validation. A two-factor solution was preferred in exploratory factor analysis and explained 48.2% of the variance. The two factors were named “point of care” and “follow-up care,” respectively. The tool’s reliability is .87.
Conclusion: The developed tool was valid and reliable. It is composed of 13 items and can be used quickly and easily. Therefore, it can be utilized for the education and training of novice nurses and the self-reflection of experienced nurses. In addition, it will be useful to review the catheterization process in common clinical settings.
Purpose: This was a qualitative study using a phenomenological research method. It was conducted to investigate the essential meaning of nursing students’ experiences participating in simulation education with standardized patients.
Methods: This study’s research participants included 16 senior employees in the nursing department of two universities. They had experiences participating in simulation education with standardized patients. This study was conducted from June 1 to December 31, 2021, and the data were analyzed using Colaizzi’s (1978) phenomenological method.
Results: After analyzing the meaning of simulation experiences with the standardized patients, 101 meaning formations were deduced. From this, 13 theme, 4 theme clusters and 2 categories—effective lesson, tasks to solve.
Conclusion: Simulation with standardized patients is a recent approach that has been actively applied in simulation-based learning in nursing colleges. This study conducted qualitative research on students’ experiences with standardized patients and analyzed essential meaning of the experiences. Therefore, it is recommended that simulation education content with standardized patients is developed. This can be achieved by optimizing the advantages of standardized patients with various clinical cases in other subjects besides psychiatry.
Purpose: Room of Errors is a little-known method in Korea, effective for patient safety education. This study aimed to examine nursing students’ recognition of pre-staged medical errors while working as individuals or in a team.
Methods: Thirty-four errors for a pre-op care scenario and thirty errors for a post-op care scenario were pre-set in two simulated patient rooms. Fifty-six nursing students randomly participated as individuals or as a team in one of two “Room of Errors” to find as many errors as possible within a certain time. The evaluation of error detection and debriefing occurred immediately following the simulation.
Results: “Wrong patient name on wrist band” (77-100%) and “bedside rails down” (91-100%) were the most frequently identified errors by both individuals and teams. Few students found “injection of a drug to which the patient is allergic” (0-9%) and “administration of a contraindicated drug to the patient” (0-7.7%). The performance of students working in a team was much better than those working alone.
Conclusion: This study found that “Room of Errors” provided very experiential and practical learning to nursing students in identifying simulated patient threats. The method is also useful for interprofessional patient safety education to develop teamwork and communication.
Purpose: This study reviews trends in the development of nursing simulation evaluation instruments and their characteristics in South Korea.
Methods: Published and unpublished studies were analyzed using Korean electronic databases, such as the Research Information Sharing Service, the National Library of Korea, and the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information. The keywords for the search included “nursing,” “simulation,” “instrument development,” “evaluation,” “validity,” and “reliability.”
Results: A total of 16 studies and 17 evaluation instruments from between 2012 and 2022 were included and categorized. The participants included junior or senior undergraduate nursing students. The evaluation was conducted through observation and self-report and classified into cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains. Only one instrument used for observation was measured for intra-rater reliability. Overall, 35.3% of the instruments integrally evaluated the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains, and 23.5% only reported one type of validity.
Conclusion: The results indicate that the instruments insufficiently reflect the various learning outcomes of simulation education. Therefore, future research should be conducted to develop simulation evaluation instruments to evaluate integral learning areas according to the learning goals and examine their validity.
Purpose: This study aims to improve nursing students’ competency through evidence-based nursing simulation education. Simulations included blood transfusion care for cancer patients, pneumothorax post-op care, and blood pressure control for hypertension care. Moreover, the study investigated the effects of simulations on anxiety, self-confidence, and student satisfaction with the learning experience.
Method: Participants completed a survey on student satisfaction, self-confidence, and anxiety. A prospective, one-group, pre- and post-test design of 135 fourth-grade nursing students was used. A simulation scenario was developed according to the design. It consisted of pre-briefing, practice, serial tests, and debriefing. A simulation of three scenarios comprised blood transfusion care for cancer patients, pneumothorax post-op care, and blood pressure control for hypertension care. Twenty hours of evidence-based nursing simulation practicum consisting of three scenarios dealing with major adult diseases was conducted.
Result: Students showed significant improvements over time in self-confidence (t=4.67, p<.001), student satisfaction (t=3.94, p<.001), and anxiety (t=-4.63, p<.001) after the evidence-based nursing simulation.
Conclusion: Simulation of evidence-based education may be a useful and effective learning strategy. Nursing educators can design evidence-based simulation programs to improve educational effectiveness.
Purpose: This qualitative phenomenological study aims to understand how nursing students interpret their experiences with handover education using concept maps in simulation-based nursing education.
Methods: Data were collected from September 18, 2021 to April 6, 2022, through in-depth one-to-one interviews with 11 nursing students. Interviews, which were conducted once or twice, lasted for 30 to 45 minutes per session. The main interview question was “How do you make meaning of your experiences with handover education using concept maps in simulation-based nursing education?” The collected data were analyzed using content analysis.
Results: Three categories of were identified: actively engaged with students, addressed the reality of handover education, and there are two sides to handover education. The participants in this study require systematic education on the take-over method and process that can integrate and structure the continuity and thinking necessary for nursing work.
Conclusion: Handover education using concept maps in simulation-based methods should be adapted according to the abilities of nursing students and their contextual needs. Future studies using large sample sizes and multiple settings should substantially evaluate the impact of handover education programs using concept maps on clinical outcomes.
Purpose: This quasi-experimental study used a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design to understand the effects of intradermal injection practice education. Practical augmented reality (AR) based educational interventions were conducted on clinical competence, self-efficacy, and educational satisfaction in nursing students.
Method: Participants were nursing students at “S” university. There were 37 students in the experimental group and 36 students in the control group, for a total of 73 students. The measurement scales were clinical competence, self-efficacy, and educational satisfaction questionnaires. The intervention in the experimental group was conducted using AR with smart glasses; the intervention in the control group was conducted using a tablet PC. The collected data were analyzed by t-test, χ2-test, and ANCOVA using the SPSS 25 program.
Results: Clinical competence was significantly higher in the experimental group (90.99±0.23) than in the control group (70.43±0.23; F=3745.89, p<.001). Self-efficacy was significantly higher in the experimental group (55.56±1.32) than in the control group (42.50±1.32; F=46.15, p<.001). Educational satisfaction was statistically significantly higher in the experimental group (40.81±6.58) than in the control group (32.56±7.74; t=4.52, p<.001).
Conclusion: The results of this study can be utilized to develop effective nursing competency teaching strategies and as basic data for improving learning and nursing education.
Purpose: This study aimed to develop a faculty development program for nursing simulation on perceived knowledge, confidence, and competence, and then evaluate its effects.
Method: A one-group pretest–posttest design was used. The eight-hour program covered simulation education theory, scenario design and development, simulation design and operation using patient simulators and standardized patients, debriefing, curriculum integration, simulation evaluation, and faculty development. Thirty-eight participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data were collected in August 2021. The study used paired t-tests to analyze differences in perceived knowledge, confidence, and competence before and after the application of the program.
Results: The participants were generally satisfied with this program. The results indicated that knowledge, confidence, and competence for nursing simulation significantly improved.
Conclusion: The faculty development program positively affected simulation instructors’ knowledge, skill, and attitude. Therefore, this validated and standardized training program can be used for training simulation faculty members at universities and institutions. It can not only reduce the cost and effort required for faculty development at each university but also ultimately contribute to the spread of nursing simulation.
Purpose: This study aimed to explore nursing simulation training needs and the educational environment of instructors.
Method: This study was conducted according to the inductive method of qualitative content analysis. An online focus group interview was conducted with six instructors with experience operating a nursing simulation. Data were collected in July 2021.
Results: First, “nursing simulation practice operations” required simulation design elements, practical operations, and curriculum integration. Second, the “educational environment” showed a lack of human and physical resources, and there was a need for standard education reflecting the domestic nursing education environment. Third, for “instructor competencies”, the facilitator role, step-by-step education for strengthening instructor competencies, and cooperation with clinical experts were derived. Fourth, it was found that “learner competencies” should meet the nursing professionals’ needs; self-directed learning competency and unique human competency should also be strengthened.
Conclusion: This study is meaningful because it seeks to understand the instructor’s needs for nursing simulation training and the educational environment. Moreover, it identifies considerations for instructor and learner competencies in the nursing simulation operator training programs.