Recent advances in computer technology have made it possible to solve numerous challenges but require faster hardware development. However, the size of the classical computer has reached its physical limit, and researchers' interest in quantum computers is growing, and it is being used in various engineering fields. However, research using quantum computing in structural engineering is very insufficient. Therefore, in this paper, the characteristics of qubits, the minimum unit of quantum information processing, were grafted with the crow search algorithm to propose QCSA (quantum crow search algorithm) and compare the convergence performance according to parameter changes. In addition, by performing the optimal design of the example truss structure, it was confirmed that quantum computing can be used in the architectural field.
This paper aims to advance our understanding of extensible beams with multiple cracks by presenting a crack energy and motion equation, and mathematically justifying the energy functions of axial and bending deformations caused by cracks. Utilizing an extended form of Hamilton's principle, we derive a normalized governing equation for the motion of the extensible beam, taking into account crack energy. To achieve a closed-form solution of the beam equation, we employ a simple approach that incorporates the crack's patching condition into the eigenvalue problem associated with the linear part of the governing equation. This methodology not only yields a valuable eigenmode function but also significantly enhances our understanding of the dynamics of cracked extensible beams. Furthermore, we derive a governing equation that is an ordinary differential equation concerning time, based on orthogonal eigenmodes. This research lays the foundation for further studies, including experimental validations, applications, and the study of damage estimation and detection in the presence of cracks.
Timber structures are susceptible to moisture, contamination, and pest infestation, which can compromise their integrity and pose a significant fire hazard. Despite these drawbacks, timber's lightweight properties, eco-friendliness, and alignment with current architectural trends emphasizing sustainability make it an attractive option for construction. Moreover, timber structures offer economic benefits and provide a natural aesthetic that regulates building temperature and humidity. In recent years, timber domes have gained popularity due to their high recyclability, lightness, and improved fire resistance. Researchers are exploring hybrid timber and steel domes to enhance stability and rigidity. However, shallow dome structures still face challenges related to structural instability. This study investigates stability problems associated with timber domes, the behavior of timber and steel hybrid domes, and the impact of timber member positioning on dome stability and critical load levels. The paper analyzes unstable buckling in single-layer lattice domes using an incremental analysis method. The critical buckling load of the domes is examined based on the arrangement of timber members in the inclined and horizontal directions. The analysis shows that nodal snapping is observed in the case of a concentrated load, whereas snap-back is also observed in the case of a uniform load. Furthermore, the use of inclined timber and horizontal steel members in the lattice dome design provides adequate stability.
In this paper, the instability of the domed spatial truss structure using wood and the characteristics of the buckling critical load were studied. Hexagonal space truss was adopted as the model to be analyzed, and two boundary conditions were considered. In the first case, the deformation of the inclined member is only considered, and in the second case, the deformation of the horizontal member is also considered. The materials of the model adopted in this paper are steel and timbers, and the considered timbers are spruce, pine, and larch. Here, the inelastic properties of the material are not considered. The instability of the target structure was observed through non-linear incremental analysis, and the buckling critical load was calculated through the singularities and eigenvalues of the tangential stiffness matrix at each incremental step. From the analysis results, in the example of the boundary condition considering only the inclined member, the critical buckling load was lower when using timber than when using steel, and the critical buckling load was determined according to the modulus of elasticity of timber. In the case of boundary conditions considering the effect of the horizontal member, using a mixture of steel and timber case had a lower buckling critical load than the steel case. But, the result showed that it was more effective in structural stability than only timber was used.
In this paper, the physical model and governing equations of a shallow arch with a moving boundary were studied. A model with a moving boundary can be easily found in a long span retractable roof, and it corresponds to a problem of a non-cylindrical domain in which the boundary moves with time. In particular, a motion equation of a shallow arch having a moving boundary is expressed in the form of an integral-differential equation. This is expressed by the time-varying integration interval of the integral coefficient term in the arch equation with an un-movable boundary. Also, the change in internal force due to the moving boundary is also considered. Therefore, in this study, the governing equation was derived by transforming the equation of the non-cylindrical domain into the cylindrical domain to solve this problem. A governing equation for vertical vibration was derived from the transformed equation, where a sinusoidal function was used as the orthonormal basis. Terms that consider the effect of the moving boundary over time in the original equation were added in the equation of the transformed cylindrical problem. In addition, a solution was obtained using a numerical analysis technique in a symmetric mode arch system, and the result effectively reflected the effect of the moving boundary.
This paper conducted a comparative analysis of the shear buckling characteristics of trapezoidal and sinusoidal corrugated steel plates considering of their initial imperfection. Initial imperfection refers to the state where the shape of the corrugated plate is initially not perfect. As such, an initially imperfect shape was assumed using the eigen buckling mode. To calculate the buckling stress of corrugated steel plates, the linear buckling analysis used a boundary condition which was applied to the plate buckling analysis. For the comparison of trapezoidal and sinusoidal corrugation, the shape parameters were assumed using the case where the length and slope of each corrugation were the same, and the initial imperfection was considered to be from 0.1% to 5% based on the length of the steel plate. Here, for the buckling analysis, ANSYS, a commercial FEA program, was used. From the results of buckling analysis, the effect of overall initial imperfection showed that the larger the initial imperfection, the lower the buckling stress. However, in the very thin model, interaction or local buckling was dominant in the perfect shape, and in this case, the buckling stress did not decrease. Besides, the sinusoidal model showed higher buckling stress than the trapezoidal one, and the two corrugation shapes decreased in a similar way.
This study aims to develop a form-finding algorithm for a single-layered pneumatic membrane. The initial shape of this pneumatic membrane, which is an air-supported type pneumatic membrane, is to find a state in which a given initial tension and internal pneumatic pressure are in equilibrium. The algorithm developed to satisfy these conditions is that a nonlinear optimization problem based on the force method considering the deformed shape is formulated, and, it’s able to find the shape by iteratively repeating the process of obtaining a solution of the governing equations. An computational technique based on the Gauss-Newton method was used as a method for obtaining solutions of nonlinear equations. In order to verify the validity of the proposed form-finding algorithm, a single-curvature pneumatic membrane example and a double-curvature air pneumatic membrane example were adopted, respectively. In the results of these examples, it was possible to well observe the step-by-step convergence process of the shape of the pneumatic membrane, and it was also possible to confirm the change in shape according to the air pressure. In addition, the calculation results of the shape and internal force after deformation due to initial tension, air pressure, and self-weight were obtained.
The governing equation for a dome-type shallow spatial truss subjected to a transverse load is expressed in the form of the Duffing equation, and it can be derived by considering geometrical non-linearity. When this model under constant load exceeds the critical level, unstable behavior is appeared. This phenomenon changes sensitively as the number of free-nodes increases or depends on the imperfection of the system. When the load is a periodic function, more complex behavior and low critical levels can be expected. Thus, the dynamic unstable behavior and the change in the critical point of the 3-free-nodes space truss system were analyzed in this work. The 4-th order Runge-Kutta method was used in the system analysis, while the change in the frequency domain was analyzed through FFT. The sinusoidal wave and the beating wave were utilized as the periodic load function. This unstable situation was observed by the case when all nodes had same load vector as well as by the case that the load vector had slight difference. The results showed the critical buckling level of the periodic load was lower than that of the constant load. The value is greatly influenced by the period of the load, while a lower critical point was observed when it was closer to the natural frequency in the case of a linear system. The beating wave, which is attributed to the interference of the two frequencies, exhibits slightly more behavior than the sinusoidal wave. And the changing of critical level could be observed even with slight changes in the load vector.
This study examines the optimum shape of a trolley, the driving device of the retractable membrane roof. The closed-type trolley was determined as the model of the study, and a trolley composed of cylindrical-shaped inner and outer holders was selected as the basic model. Based on this model, a cylindrical-based optimal trolley model was proposed. In the basic trolley model, steel was used for the outer holder, and steel, titanium, and aluminum were used for the inner holder. In each case, the most economical shape for the external load of the basic model was newly proposed through the topology optimization process, and the finite element analysis results of the proposed model were compared to define the durability and economics. Here, topology optimization analysis and finite element analysis used the commercial software ANSYS. As a result of optimization, the volume of the outer holder of the trolley was reduced by 58.2% and the volume of the inner holder was reduced by 25.0% compared to the basic model. In the case of stress, a stress increase of 43.2 to 79.2% occurred depending on the material of the inner holder, but it was found to be significantly lower than the yield strength, thereby ensuring safety.
This paper examines the seismic performance and structural design of the ceiling bracket-type modular connection. The bracket-type system reduces the cross-sectional area loss of members and combines units using fitting steel plate, and it has been developed to be fit for medium-story and higher-story buildings. In particular, this study conducted the cyclic loading test for the performance of the C-type and L-type brackets, and compared the results. The test results were also compared with the commercial FEA program. In addition, the structural design process for the bracket-type modular connection was presented. The two connections, proposed as a result of the test results, were all found to secure the seismic performance level of the special moment steel frame. In the case of initial stiffness, the L-type bracket connection was found to be great, but in the case of the maximum moment or fully plastic moment, it was different depending on the loading direction.
This paper examined the dynamic instability of a shallow arch according to the response characteristics when nearing critical loads. The frequency changing feathers of the time-domain increasing the loads are analyzed using Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT), while the response signal around the critical loads are analyzed using Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT). This study reveals that the models with an arch shape of h = 3 or higher exhibit buckling, which is very sensitive to the asymmetric initial conditions. Also, the critical buckling load increases as the shape increases, with its feather varying depending on the asymmetric initial conditions. Decomposition results show the decrease in predominant frequency before the threshold as the load increases, and the predominant period doubles at the critical level. In the vicinity of the critical level, sections rapidly manifest the displacement increase, with the changes in Instantaneous Frequency (IF) and Instant Energy (IE) becoming apparent.
In this paper, the dynamic snapping of the 3-free-nodes spatial truss model was studied. A governing equation was derived considering geometric nonlinearity, and a model with various conditions was analyzed using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The dynamic buckling phenomenon was observed in consideration of sensitive changes to the force mode and the initial condition. In addition, the critical load level was analyzed. According to the results of the study, the level of critical buckling load elevated when the shape parameter was high. Parallelly, the same result was caused by the damping term. The sensitive asymmetrical changes showed complex orbits in the phase space, and the critical load level was also becoming lowly. In addition, as the value of damping constant was high, the level of critical load also increases. In particular, the larger the damping constant, the faster it converges to the equilibrium point, and the occurrence of snapping was suppressed.
The structural design of arch roofs or bridges requires the analysis of their unstable behaviors depending on certain parameters defined in the arch shape. Their maintenance should estimate the parameters from observed data. However, since the critical parameters exist in the equilibrium paths of the arch, and a small change in such the parameters causes a significant change in their behaviors. Thus, estimation to find the critical ones should be carried out using a global search algorithm. In this paper we study the parameter estimation for a shallow arch by a quantum-inspired evolution algorithm. A cost functional to estimate the system parameters included in the arch consists of the difference between the observed signal and the estimated signal of the arch system. The design variables are shape, external load and damping constant in the arch system. We provide theoretical and numerical examples for estimation of the parameters from both contaminated data and pure data.
The cable-based retractable membrane roof makes it impossible to maintain its shape and stiffness during driving process, unlike the hard-type retractable roof. Consequently, monitoring using a relatively simple wireless video transmission device is required. However, since video data has a bigger transmission rating than other monitoring data in terms of the structure velocity or acceleration, there is a need to develop transmission device that is easy to install and entails low maintenance cost. This paper studies on a real-time video transmission system for monitoring the cable-based retractable membrane roof while driving. A video transfer software, using the mobile network, is designed and the embedded system is constructed. Ultimately, the data transmission server is tested. Connecting a trolley to the system allows testing of the validity and efficiency of the developed system through the video data transmitted in the driving process. Result of the test shows that the developed system enables multi-device data transfer with monitoring via the mobile network.
A stadium roof that uses the pin-jointed spatial truss system has to be designed by taking into account the unstable phenomenon due to the geometrical non-linearity of the long span. This phenomenon is mainly studied in the single-free-node model (SFN) or double-free-node model (DFN). Unlike the simple SFN model, the more complex DFN model has a higher order of characteristic equations, making analysis of the system’s stability complicated. However, various symmetric conditions can allow limited analysis of these problems. Thus, this research looks at the stability of the DFN model which is assumed to be symmetric in shape, and its load and equilibrium state. Its governing system is expressed by nonlinear differential equations to show the double Duffing effect. To investigate the dynamic behavior and characteristics, we normalize the system of the model in terms of space and time. The equilibrium points of the system unloaded or symmetrically loaded are calculated exactly. Furthermore, the stability of these points via the roots of the characteristic equation of a Jacobian matrix are classified.
In this paper, the characteristic of intrinsic mode function(IMF) and its orthogonalization of ensemble empirical mode decomposition(EEMD), which is often used in the analysis of the non-linear or non-stationary signal, has been studied. In the decomposition process, the orthogonal IMF of EEMD was obtained by applying the Gram-Schmidt(G-S) orthogonalization method, and was compared with the IMF of orthogonal EMD(OEMD). Two signals for comparison analysis are adopted as the analytical test function and El Centro seismic wave. These target signals were compared by calculating the index of orthogonality(IO) and the spectral energy of the IMF. As a result of the analysis, an IMF with a high IO was obtained by GSO method, and the orthogonal EEMD using white noise was decomposed into orthogonal IMF with energy closer to the original signal than conventional OEMD.
In this paper, the shape adjustment algorithm of the spoked wheel cable structures with retractable membrane system is studied. The initial tension of the membrane or cable is necessary to form the structure and its value is determined by the design shape. However, due to internal and external environmental influences, its shape may be different from the initial designed shape. In the case of the cable structures covered in this study, tension adjustment is necessary to maintain the designed shape because it influences the tension of the cable depending on the state of the retractable membrane. Therefore, we proposed an adjustment algorithm of an initial shape based on the force method. The effectiveness and validity of the methodology were examined through the applicable cable structures. The results of the shape adjustment analysis of the symmetric spoked wheel cable model were reliable and accurate results were obtained.