U-flanged truss beam is composed of u-shaped upper steel flange, lower steel plate of 8mm or more thickness, and connecting lattice bars. Upper flange and lower plate are connected by the diagonal lattice bars welded on the upper and lower sides. In this study, the details of delayed buckling of lattice members were developed through reinforcement of the end section, in order to improve structural capacity of U-flanged Truss Steel Beam. To verify the effects of these details, the simple beam experiment was conducted. The maximum capacity of all the specimens were determined by the buckling of the lattice. The vertical reinforced details of the ends with steel plates, rather than the details reinforced with steel bars, are confirmed to be a valid method for enhancing the structural capacity of the U-flanged Truss beam. In addition, U-flanged Truss Steel Beam with reinforced endings with steel plates can exhibit sufficient capacity of the lattice buckling by the formulae according to Korean Building Code (KBC, 2016) and Eurocode 3.
In this study, we will develop a hybrid cross-sectional shape of steel inserted type glued-laminated timber that can improve the strength of structural glued-laminated timber and maximize the ductility by using steel plate with excellent tensile and deformation ability. A total of three specimens were fabricated and the flexural performance test was carried out to evaluate the structural performance of the steel inserted type glued-laminated timber. In order to compare the effect of steel inserted glued-laminated timber, one structural glued-laminated timber test specimen composed of pure wood was manufactured. In addition, in order to evaluate the adhesion performance of the steel inserted, one each of a screw joint test specimen and a polyurethane joint test specimen was prepared. As a result, all the specimens showed the initial crack in the finger joint near the force point. This has been shown to be a cause of crack diffusion and strength degradation. The use of finger joints in the maximum moment section is considered to affect the strength and ductility of the glued-laminated timber beam. Polyurethane-adhesive steel inserted glued-laminated timber showed fully-composite behavior with little horizontal separation between the steel plate and glued-laminated timber until the maximum load was reached. This method has been shown to exhibit sufficient retention bending performance.
Recently, deep learning that is the most popular and effective class of machine learning algorithms is widely applied to various industrial areas. A number of research on various topics about structural engineering was performed by using artificial neural networks, such as structural design optimization, vibration control and system identification etc. When nonlinear semi-active structural control devices are applied to building structure, a lot of computational effort is required to predict dynamic structural responses of finite element method (FEM) model for development of control algorithm. To solve this problem, an artificial neural network model was developed in this study. Among various deep learning algorithms, a recurrent neural network (RNN) was used to make the time history response prediction model. An RNN can retain state from one iteration to the next by using its own output as input for the next step. An eleven-story building structure with semi-active tuned mass damper (TMD) was used as an example structure. The semi-active TMD was composed of magnetorheological damper. Five historical earthquakes and five artificial ground motions were used as ground excitations for training of an RNN model. Another artificial ground motion that was not used for training was used for verification of the developed RNN model. Parametric studies on various hyper-parameters including number of hidden layers, sequence length, number of LSTM cells, etc. After appropriate training iteration of the RNN model with proper hyper-parameters, the RNN model for prediction of seismic responses of the building structure with semi-active TMD was developed. The developed RNN model can effectively provide very accurate seismic responses compared to the FEM model.
In this paper, the dynamic snapping of the 3-free-nodes spatial truss model was studied. A governing equation was derived considering geometric nonlinearity, and a model with various conditions was analyzed using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The dynamic buckling phenomenon was observed in consideration of sensitive changes to the force mode and the initial condition. In addition, the critical load level was analyzed. According to the results of the study, the level of critical buckling load elevated when the shape parameter was high. Parallelly, the same result was caused by the damping term. The sensitive asymmetrical changes showed complex orbits in the phase space, and the critical load level was also becoming lowly. In addition, as the value of damping constant was high, the level of critical load also increases. In particular, the larger the damping constant, the faster it converges to the equilibrium point, and the occurrence of snapping was suppressed.
Wind tunnel tests were conducted to analyze the wind fluctuating pressures on a circular closed and open dome roof with a low span rise. Two dome models with various geometric parameters (height/span ratios and open ratios) were used for fixed span rise ratio dome and wind pressure spectrum were analyzed. The applicability was examined in comparison with the spectral model proposed in the previous studies. The analysis results show that the wind pressure spectrum of open dome roof tends to increase power in the high frequency range and the second peak is found in the area different from the closed dome roof. In addition, according to the comparison analysis with the previous proposed spectral model, it was found that it is not applicable to the closed and open dome roofs with low rise ratio due to the different peak frequencies.
This paper examined the dynamic instability of a shallow arch according to the response characteristics when nearing critical loads. The frequency changing feathers of the time-domain increasing the loads are analyzed using Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT), while the response signal around the critical loads are analyzed using Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT). This study reveals that the models with an arch shape of h = 3 or higher exhibit buckling, which is very sensitive to the asymmetric initial conditions. Also, the critical buckling load increases as the shape increases, with its feather varying depending on the asymmetric initial conditions. Decomposition results show the decrease in predominant frequency before the threshold as the load increases, and the predominant period doubles at the critical level. In the vicinity of the critical level, sections rapidly manifest the displacement increase, with the changes in Instantaneous Frequency (IF) and Instant Energy (IE) becoming apparent.
The present study is aimed to calculate the optimal damping according to the seismic load on the structure with a non-seismic design to perform structure analysis considering the deformation of structural joint connection and panel zone; to develop design program equipped with structural stability of the steel frame structures reinforced with the panel zone and viscous dampers, using the results of the analysis, in order to systematically integrate the seismic reinforcement of the non-seismic structures and the analysis and design of steel frame structures. The study results are as follows: When considering the deformation of the panel zone, the deformation has been reduced up to thickness of the panel double plate below twice the flange thickness, which indicates the effect of the double plate thickness on the panel zone, but the deformation showed uniform convergence when the ration is more than twice. The SMRPF system that was applied to this study determines the damping force and displacement by considering the panel zone to the joint connection and calculating the shear each floor for the seismic load at the same time. The result indicates that the competence of the damper is predictable that can secure seismic performance for the structures with non-seismic design without changing the cross-section of the members.
Phaya-Thon-Zu temple has a unique architectural style connected by the three temples, and cultural values are highly as murals remain on some of the walls. However, various damages in internal walls and vaults have occurred due to earthquake and environmental influences. In order to analyze these damages, accurate structural analysis is required, but structural modeling is difficult, because Phaya-Thon-Zu temple is the complex masonry structure which is stacked with small bricks. Therefore, this study intends to analyze the causes of damages by examining collapse mechanism for cross section and longitudinal section of vaults in the entrance hall and shrine by using thrust line analysis, which is a geometric method, and to compare it with the actual damage situation.