The purpose of this study is to evaluate the structural safety of cultural altar since its bearing capacity has been questioned due to weathering damages and sectional defections. This evaluation process consists two stages; which the first is field investigation and the second is structural modeling and analysis. Based on field investigation, all of the structural members supporting the altar were carefully examined and all the findings were accounted for the development of the structural modeling using the Midas computer program. Using a 3D scanner, the weight of the Buddha statue was applied to the structural modeling. Then, according to the allowable stress design method of KBC2016, the structural safety was evaluated. Based on this result, replacements of several structural members were recommended to increase the structural safety and value of cultural property.
This paper analyse the mechanical characteristics of geometrical and material nonlinearity behavior of cylindrical shell roofs subjected to a concentrated load. The shell elements were modeled using ‘NISA2016’ software as 3D general shell element and 3D composite shell element. The 3D shell element includes deformation due to bending, membrane, membrane-bending coupling and shear perpendicular to the grain effects is suited for modeling moderately thick or thin general shells and laminated composite shells. And The 3D composite shell element consists of a number of layers of perfectly bonded anisotropic and orthotropic materials. The purpose of this research is to analysis the load-deflection curves considering the combined geometric and material nonlinearity of cylindrical shells. In a shallowed cylindrical shell, snap-through curve can be found.
Recently, the concept of an outrigger damper system with a damper added to the existing outrigger system has been developed and applied for dynamic response control of high-rise buildings. However, the study on the structural characteristics and design method of Outrigger damper system is in the early stages. In this study, a 50 story high - rise building was designed and an outrigger damper system with viscoelastic damper was applied for wind response control. The time history analysis was performed by using the kaimal spectrum to create an artificial wind load for a total of 1,000 seconds at 0.1 second intervals. Analysis of the top horizontal maximum displacement response and acceleration response shows that outrigger damper systems are up to 28.33% and 49.26% more effective than conventional outrigger systems, respectively. Also, it is confirmed that the increase of damping ratio of dampers is effective for dynamic response control. However, since increasing the damping capacity increases the economic burden, it is necessary to select the appropriate stiffness and damping value of the outrigger damper system.
Wireless sensors are more favorable in measuring structural response compared to conventional sensors. This is because they are easier to use with no issues with cables and are considerably cheaper. There are several applications that can be used in recording and analyzing data from MEMS sensor installed on an iPhone. The Vibration App is one of the applications used and there has not been adequate research conducted in analyzing the performance of this App. This paper analyzed the performance of the Vibration App by comparing it with the performance of an ICP sensor. Results show that natural frequency results are more accurate (error less than 5%) in comparison to the amplitude results. This means that built- in MEMS sensor in smartphones are good at estimating natural frequency of structures. In addition, it was seen that the results became more accurate at higher frequencies (5.0Hz and 10.0Hz).
Tensile load tests were conducted on High-Shear Ring Anchors (HRAs) after shear load had been applied to the HRAs, which had been developed to reduce the number of the anchors. Test variables include the embedment length of the rod and the width of the specimens and a total of 12 specimens were tested. Test results show that the HRAs pulled out due to bond failure or steel failure occurred in case that the HRAs were installed to the members with 300mm or greater width and the embedment length of 160mm (the actual embedment of rod is 140mm) or deeper. Except 4 HRAs showing steel failure of rod, the minimum and average of test-to-prediction by ACI 318-14 ratios are 1.18 and 1.79, respectively. The tensile strength of HRAs, after shear load was applied to the HRAs, can be safely evaluated by the minimum among the concrete breakout strength and bond strength with the actual embedment length of the rod.
In this study, an algorithm applying deep learning to the truss structures was proposed. Deep learning is a method of raising the accuracy of machine learning by creating a neural networks in a computer. Neural networks consist of input layers, hidden layers and output layers. Numerous studies have focused on the introduction of neural networks and performed under limited examples and conditions, but this study focused on two- and three-dimensional truss structures to prove the effectiveness of algorithms. and the training phase was divided into training model based on the dataset size and epochs. At these case, a specific data value was selected and the error rate was shown by comparing the actual data value with the predicted value, and the error rate decreases as the data set and the number of hidden layers increases. In consequence, it showed that it is possible to predict the result quickly and accurately without using a numerical analysis program when applying the deep learning technique to the field of structural analysis.
Seismic isolation systems have typically been used in the form of base seams in mid-rise and low-rise buildings. In the case of high-rise buildings, it is difficult to apply the base isolation. In this study, the seismic response was analyzed by changing the installation position of the seismic isolation device in 3D high - rise model. To do this, we used 30-story and 40-story 3D buildings as example structures. Historic earthquakes such as Mexico (1985), Northridge (1994) and Rome Frieta (1989) were applied as earthquake loads. The installation position of the isolation device was changed from floor to floor to floor. The maximum deformation of the seismic isolation system was analyzed and the maximum interlaminar strain and maximum absolute acceleration were analyzed by comparing the LB model with seismic isolation device and the Fixed model, which is the base model without seismic isolation device. If an isolation device is installed on the lower layer, it is most effective in response reduction, but since the structure may become unstable, it is effective to apply it to an effective high-level part. Therefore, engineers must consider both structural efficiency and safety when designing a mid-level isolation system for high-rise buildings.
The paper presents the damage estimation of bridge structures in Daegu city based on the scenario-based earthquakes. Since the fragility curves for domestic bridge strucures are limited, the Hazus methodology is employed to derive the fragility curves and estimate the damage. A total of four earthuquake scenarios near Daegu city are assumed and structure damage is investigated for 81 bridge structures. The seismic fragility function and damage level of each bridge had adopted from the analytical method in HAZUS and then, the damage probability using seismic fragility function for each bridge was evaluated. It was concluded that the seismic damage to bridges was higher when the magnitude of the earthquake was large or nearer to the epicenter.
A connected control method for the adjacent buildings has been studied to reduce dynamic responses. In these studies, seismic loads were generally used as an excitation. Recently, multi-hazards loads including earthquake and strong wind loads are employed to investigate control performance of various control systems. Accordingly, strong wind load as well as earthquake load was adopted to evaluate control performance of adaptive smart coupling control system against multi-hazard. To this end, an artificial seismic load in the region of strong seismicity and an artificial wind load in the region of strong winds were generated for control performance evaluation of the coupling control system. Artificial seismic and wind excitations were made by SIMQKE and Kaimal spectrum based on ASCE 7-10. As example buildings, two 20-story and 12-story adjacent buildings were used. An MR (magnetorheological) damper was used as an adaptive smart control device to connect adjacent two buildings. In oder to present nonlinear dynamic behavior of MR damper, Bouc-Wen model was employed in this study. After parametric studies on MR damper capacity, optimal command voltages for MR damper on each seismic and wind loads were investigated. Based on numerical analyses, it was shown that the adaptive smart coupling control system proposed in this study can provide very good control performance for Multi-hazards.
In this study, the seismic performance and behavior characteristics of the upper truss structure of the large stadium are analyzed by nonlinear dynamic analysis. In the nonlinear dynamic analysis, the earthquake records were generated by site response analysis to simulate the nonlinear behavior of the relevant soil condition where the structure is located. Nonlinear dynamic analysis was performed using Perform-3D and the nonlinear properties of the substructure and the superstructure were determined in accordance with KISTEC guideline. According to the analysis results, excessive deformation occurred in the upper truss element, and plastic hinges exceeded the target performance in some members. Buckling-restrained brace is used for seismic retrofit of stadium structures and the analysis results shows the interstory drift satisfies the target performance level with dissipating the seismic energy efficiently.
U-flanged truss beam is composed of u-shaped upper steel flange, lower steel plate of 8mm or more thickness, and connecting lattice bars. Upper flange and lower plate are connected by the diagonal lattice bars welded on the upper and lower sides. In this study the structural experiments on the U-flanged truss beams with various shapes of upper flange were performed, and the flexural and shear capacities of U-flanged truss beam in the construction stage were evaluated. The principal test parameters were the shape of upper flange and the alignment space of diagonal lattice bars. In all the test specimens, the peak loads were determined by the buckling of lattice bar regardless of the upper flange shape. The test results have shown that the buckling of lattice bar is very important design factor and there is no need to reinforce the basic u-shaped upper flange. However, the early lattice buckling occurred in the truss beam with upper steel bars because of the insufficient strength and stiffness of upper chord, and the reinforcement in the upper chord is necessary. The formulae of Eurocode 3 (2005) have presented more exact evaluations of lattice buckling load than those of KBC 2016.
U-flanged truss beam is composed of u-shaped upper steel flange, lower steel plate of 8mm or more thickness, and connecting lattice bars welded on the upper and lower sides. The hybrid beam with U-flanged steel truss is made in the construction site through pouring the concrete, and designated as U-flanged truss hybrid beam. In this study the structural experiments on the 4 hybrid beams with the proposed basic shapes were performed, and the flexural capacities from the tests were compared with those from the theoretical approach. The failure modes of each specimen were quite similar. The peak load was reached with the ductile behavior after yielding, and the failure occurred through the concrete crushing. The considerable increasement of deformation was observed up to the concrete crushing. The composite action of concrete and steel member was considered to be reliable from the behavior of specimens. The flexural strength of hybrid beam has been evaluated exactly using the calculation method applied in the boubly reinforced concrete beam. The placement of additional rebars in the bottom instead of upper side is proposed for the efficient design of U-flanged truss hybrid beam.