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        검색결과 152

        1.
        2024.01 KCI 등재 SCOPUS 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        This study successfully prepared high-porosity aluminosilicate fibrous porous ceramics through vacuum suction filtration using aluminosilicate fiber as the primary raw material and glass powder as binder, with the appropriate incorporation of glass fiber. The effects of the composition of raw materials and sintering process on the structure and properties of the material were studied. The results show that when the content of glass powder reached 20 wt% and the samples were sintered at the temperature of 1,000 °C, strong bonds were formed between the binder phase and fibers, resulting in a compressive strength of 0.63 MPa. When the sintering temperatures were increased from 1,000 °C to 1,200, the open porosity of the samples decreased from 89.08 % to 82.38 %, while the linear shrinkage increased from 1.13 % to 10.17 %. Meanwhile, during the sintering process, a large amount of cristobalite and mullite were precipitated from the aluminosilicate fibers, which reduced the performance of the aluminosilicate fibers and hindered the comprehensive improvement in sample performance. Based on these conditions, after adding 30 wt% glass fiber and being sintered at 1,000 °C, the sample exhibited higher compressive strength (1.34 MPa), higher open porosity (89.13 %), and lower linear shrinkage (5.26 %). The aluminosilicate fibrous porous ceramic samples exhibited excellent permeability performance due to their high porosity and interconnected three-dimensional pore structures. When the samples were filtered at a flow rate of 150 mL/min, the measured pressure drop and permeability were 0.56 KPa and 0.77 × 10-6 m2 respectively.
        4,000원
        3.
        2023.11 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
        Activated carbon (AC), extensively used across various industrial sectors, serves as a sponge for different types of gases due to its porous carbon material. These gases are attracted to the carbon substrate via van der Waals forces. In nuclear power plants, AC is commonly used to adsorb radioactive gases such as 86Kr and 134Xe, as well as radioiodine sources like 131I and 133I from gaseous effluents. Even if the adsorbed radioactive gases and radioiodine decay into non-radioactive elements, the spent AC still contains radioactive species with long half-lives, such as 3H (Tritium, T) and 14C (radiocarbon). Minimizing and separating waste that contains long-lived nuclides (e.g., 14C) are pivotal components of an efficient waste management approach. A challenging aspect of effectively managing disposed AC is to minimize long-lived radioactive substances by eliminating them. This paper explores and summarizes the technology used to remove pollutants (3H, 14C) trapped within the pores of Activated carbon through thermochemical vacuum and surface oxidation processes. By recycling and reusing spent Activated carbon, we anticipate a reduction in the volume of radioactive waste, leading to decreased disposal costs. Furthermore, this paper will contribute as a valuable reference in future studies, enhancing the understanding of vacuum thermal desorption and surface oxidation of used Activated carbon.
        4.
        2023.11 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
        Nuclear power plants in Korea stores approximately 3,800 drums of paraffin solidification products. Due to the lack of homogeneity, these solidification products are not allowed to be disposed of. There is therefore a need for the separation of paraffin from the solidification products. This work developed an equipment for a selective separation of paraffin from the solidification product using the vacuum evaporation and condensational recovery method in a closed system. The equipment mainly consists of a vacuum evaporator and a condensational deposition recovery chamber. Nonisothermal vacuum TGAs, kinetic analyses and kinetic predictions were conducted to set appropriate operation conditions. Its basic operability under the established conditions was first confirmed using pure paraffin solid. Simulated paraffin solidification product fixing dried boric acid waste including nonradioactive Co and Cs were then fabricated and tested for the capability of selective separation of paraffin from the simulated waste. Paraffin was selectively separated without entertainment of Co and Cs. It was confirmed that the developed equipment could separate and recover paraffin in the form of nonradioactive waste.
        5.
        2023.11 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
        Reticulated foams have a continuous skeleton network consisting of aluminosilicates and are used for capturing gaseous cesium released from spent nuclear fuel at high temperature. It has high stability to high temperature and good capturing performance. Homogeneous cell distribution and modified surface structures are indispensable conditions for stable operation and handling. In particular, triangularly shaped holes inside the struts were generated during the pyrolysis of polyurethane sponge as a sacricial template, which lead to limite the strength of the reticulated foam as well as cracks. However, several attempts have been focused on the increasing the strut thickness. Here, we have prepared ceramic foams by the polyurethane sponge replication method with roller squeezing. Ceramic slurry including additives was determined with consideration of its viscous behavior. After pre-sintering, infiltration under vacuum was conducted. Metakaolin slurry was filled partially into the triangular void. As a result, the compression strength was improved by structure modification without composition change.
        6.
        2023.11 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
        The saturation of wet storage facilities constructed and operated within nuclear power plant sites has magnified the significance of research concerning the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. Not only do wet storage facilities incur higher operational and maintenance costs compared to dry storage facilities, but long-term storage of metal-clad fuel assemblies submerged in aqueous tanks is deemed unsuitable. Consequently, dry storage is anticipated to gain prominence in the future. Nevertheless, it is widely acknowledged that quantitatively assessing the residual water content remains elusive even when employing the apparatus and procedures utilized in the existing dry storage processes. The presence of residual water can only be inferred from damage or structural alterations to the spent nuclear fuel during its dry storage, making precise prediction of this element crucial, as it can be a significant contributor to potential deformations and deterioration. The aforementioned challenges compound the issue of retrievability, as substantial complexities emerge when attempting to retrieve spent nuclear fuel for permanent disposal in the future. Consequently, our research team has established a laboratory-scale vacuum drying facility to investigate the sensitivity of various parameters, including canister volume, pump capacity, water surface area, and water temperature, which can exert thermohydraulic influences on residual water content. Moreover, we have conducted dimensional analysis to quantify the thermohydraulic effects of these parameters and express them as dimensionless numbers. These analytical approaches will subsequently be integrated into predictive models for residual water content, which will be further developed and validated at pilot or full-scale levels. Furthermore, our research team is actively engaged in experimental investigations aimed at fine-tuning the duration of the pressure-holding phase while optimizing the evaporation process under conditions designed to avert the formation of ice caused by abrupt temperature fluctuations. Given that the canister is constructed from acrylic material, we are able to identify, from a phenomenological perspective, the specific juncture at which the boiling phenomenon becomes manifest during the vacuum drying process.
        7.
        2023.11 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
        Measuring the amount of water remaining in the canister after drying is critical to ensuring the integrity of Dry Storage. There are many ways to measure residual moisture, but dew point sensors are typically used to measure residual moisture after drying the canister. Because the dew point temperature inside the canister depends on the water vapor partial pressure, the water vapor partial pressure present in the canister can be determined using the dew point temperature. The British Standard (BS1336) proposes a formula for converting dew point temperature into vapor partial pressure. It is possible to validate changes in residual water concentration throughout drying and at the end of drying. It has around 500 ppmv when the dew point temperature hits -73°C at 3 torr. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) presented at 3 torr for 30 minutes as a criterion for the suitability of spent nuclear fuel drying. When the canister’s internal pressure is around 1,000 torr and the dryness criteria are met, the moisture concentration for this value is around 3,000 ppmv. We conducted a vacuum drying test of a 57 liter test vessel. It is filled with helium after vacuum drying was completed, and the concentration of residual water is measured by AquaVolt Moisture Analyzer (AMA) connected by a sample flow line. After the vacuum pressure of 1.5 torr was reached, the test vessel was filled to a pressure of 1,140 torr of helium after 30 minutes. The average temperature inside the basket inside the test vessel is 50°C, the dew point temperature is below -70°C, the pressure of test vessel is around 1,000 torr, and the measurement results of the AMA connected to the sample line showed less than 200 ppmv. From these results, we can evaluate that the residual moisture in the test vessel is about 0.01 gram.
        8.
        2023.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
        There is a need to develop a quantitative residual water measurement method to reduce the measurement uncertainty of the amount of residual water inside the canister after the end of vacuum drying. Therefore, a lab-scale vacuum drying apparatus was fabricated and its characteristics were evaluated by performing vacuum drying experiments based on the amount of residual water, vacuum drying experiments based on the surface area of residual water, and vacuum drying experiments based on the energy of residual water using the lab-scale vacuum drying apparatus. As a result of the vacuum drying experiments, if the surface area of water is the same, the greater the amount of water, the greater the energy of the water, so more energy is transferred to the surface of the water. Therefore, more water evaporated, and the average temperature of the remaining water was higher. The larger the surface area of the water, the more energy it takes to vaporize it, so the faster it dries and the faster the drying time. Before ice formed, energy was actively transferred by conduction heat transfer from the top, center, and bottom of the water to provide the energy needed for the water to evaporate from the surface. However, no energy was transferred from the water just before it turned into ice. When vacuum drying water, you can dry more water if you dry it slowly over a longer period of time. Therefore, by using a vacuum pump with a low flow rate, the pressure can be lowered slowly to prevent ice from freezing, thereby improving the drying quantity. It was evaluated that there was a good agreement between the energy used when water evaporated and the energy absorbed from the surroundings to within about 4%. Therefore, if the energy absorbed from the surroundings is known, it is possible to evaluate the amount of water evaporated in vacuum drying.
        10.
        2022.10 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
        For the decommissioning or continuous long-term power generation of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to transfer the spent nuclear fuel from the wet storage pool to the dry storage. Spent nuclear fuel should go through the drying process, which is the first step of dry storage. The most important part in the drying process is the removal of the residual water. The spent fuel might be stored in a dry storage system for a long time. The integrity of internal components and spent fuel cladding should be maintained during the storage period. If residual water is present, problems such as aging of metal materials, oxidation of cladding, and the hydride-reorientation could occur. The presence or absence of residual water after vacuum drying is evaluated by pressure. If there is residual water in the vacuum drying process, it evaporates easily at low pressure to form water vapor pressure and the internal pressure rises. In the recent EPRI High burn up demonstration test, the gas inside the canister that satisfied the dryness criteria was extracted and analyzed. It showed that the water content was higher than the expected value. We are conducting verification studies on the pressure evaluation method, which is an indirect evaluation method of vacuum drying. The vacuum drying test was performed on small specimens at Sandia National Laboratory, and quantitative residual water evaluation was also performed. The report did not mention a detailed method for the assessment of residual water. Based on the test results of SNL, direct residual water evaluation was performed using energy balance. If the dryness criteria were satisfied, the quantitative amount of residual water was also evaluated. As a result, almost the same result as the evaluation result of SNL was derived, and it was confirmed that most of the water was removed when the dryness criteria was satisfied.
        11.
        2022.04 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        The synthesis of porous W by freeze-casting and vacuum drying is investigated. Ball-milled WO3 powders and tert-butyl alcohol were used as the starting materials. The tert-butyl alcohol slurry is frozen at –25oC and dried under vacuum at –25 and –10oC. The dried bodies are hydrogen-reduced at 800oC and sintered at 1000oC. The XRD analysis shows that WO3 is completely reduced to W without any reaction phases. SEM observations reveal that the struts and pores aligned in the tert-butyl alcohol growth direction, and the change in the powder content and drying temperature affects the pore structure. Furthermore, the struts of the porous body fabricated under vacuum are thinner than those fabricated under atmospheric pressure. This behavior is explained by the growth mechanism of tert-butyl alcohol and rearrangement of the powders during solidification. These results suggest that the pore structure of a porous body can be controlled by the powder content, drying temperature, and pressure.
        4,000원
        14.
        2022.03 KCI 등재 SCOPUS 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        Zintl phase Mg3Sb2 is a promising thermoelectric material in medium to high temperature range due to its low band gap energy and characteristic electron-crystal phonon-glass behavior. P-type Mg3Sb2 has conventionally exhibited lower thermoelectric properties compared to its n-type counterparts, which have poor electrical conductivity. To address these problems, a small amount of Sn doping was considered in this alloy system. P-type Mg3Sb2 was synthesized by controlled melting, pulverizing, and subsequent vacuum hot pressing (VHP) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to investigate phases and microstructure development during the process. Single phase Mg3Sb2 was successfully formed when 16 at.% of Mg was excessively added to the system. Nominal compositions of Mg3.8Sb2-xSnx (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.008) were considered in this study. Thermoelectric properties were evaluated in terms of Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity. A peak ZT value ≈ 0.32 was found for the specimen Mg3.8Sb1.994Sn0.006 at 873 K, showing an improved ZT value compared to intrinsic one. Transport properties were also evaluated and discussed.
        4,000원
        19.
        2021.10 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        The effect of heat treatment and vacuum conditions on the textural properties and electrochemical performance of commercially available activated carbons (ACs) was investigated. The AC after post-heat treatment was characterized by nitrogen adsorption–desorption, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The ACs treated under vacuum conditions exhibit a higher specific surface area and micropore surface area than those treated under nitrogen atmospheric pressure without significantly affecting the graphite structure of the AC. Under 800 °C temperature and vacuum conditions (AC-V800), the AC with the highest Brunauer– Emmett–Teller surface area of 1951.9 m2 g−1 (16.4% improvement relative to that of the original AC (1677.2 m2 g−1)) was obtained. This is attributed to the removal of oxygen-containing functional groups and volatile matters in the carbon by thermal treatment under vacuum conditions. Consequently, the electric double-layer capacitor using ACs treated under vacuum conditions (1 kPa) at 800 °C (AC-V800) shows considerably improved electrochemical performance in terms of higher specific capacitance and better cycling stability at a high working voltage (3.1 V), compared to the nitrogen-treated and commercial ACs.
        4,300원
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