갯지렁이류는 연안의 모래와 펄속에서 쉽게 발견되며, 그 종류의 수나 자원량이 풍부한 저서동물군이다. 이들은 저질 에 굴을 뚫어 해수를 순환하게 함으로써 유기 성분을 변화 시켜 저질을 정화시키기도 하는 등 해양 저서 생태계에서 중요한 위치를 점하고 있다. 또한 갯지렁이류는 해양 오염 의 지표 생물로 저서 어류의 주된 먹이 및 낚시 미끼로 이용 되고 있다. 최근 연안 갯벌이 국책 사업 등 여러 가지 간척 및 매립 공사로 인하여 갯지렁이와 같은 저서 생물이 생활 할 수 있는 서식지 면적이 감소하고 있을 뿐만 아니라 하천 에서 배출되는 각종 유기물에 의한 오염의 정도가 심화되고 있는 실정이다. 이러한 측면에서 유기물의 성분을 변화 시 켜 저질을 정화시키는 작용을 한다고 생각되는 갯지렁이를 이식함으로써 이식에 따른 저질 환경 개선 등에 대한 연구 의 필요성이 제기된다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 여자만의 궁 항 갯벌에 갯지렁이를 이식하여, 이식 후의 월별 저질의 입 자 구조에 대하여 조사하였다. 조사 대상지인 여자만에 대한 문헌 및 사전 현장 조사를 기초로 하여 전라남도 여자만에 위치한 사곡리 궁항마을 앞 갯벌(34°47′02,93″, 127°34′19,35″)을 실험 대상 지로 선정하였다. 조사 정점은 두토막눈썹참갯지렁이, Perinereis aibuhiteusis를 이식하지 않은 대조구와 갯지렁 이를 이식한 실험구로 분리하여, 2012년 매월 1회씩 저질을 채집하여 분석하였다. 실험구로 정한 정점에는 갯지렁이의 이식 밀도를 100개체/m2 (총 2500마리)로 이식하였으며 채 집은 간조시 상자형 코어(30 cm2)를 사용하여 약 30 cm 깊이까지 정점당 4회로 하였다. 퇴적물의 입도 분석은 과산 화수소와 염산을 넣어 유기물과 탄산염을 제거한 후, 습식 체질에 의해 4φ 이하와 그 이상으로 분리하였다. 이중 4φ 이하 조립질 퇴적물은 건식 체질법, 4φ 이상 세립질 퇴적 물은 피펫팅법으로 분석하였다. 퇴적물의 입도 특성을 나타 내는 평균입도, 분급도, 왜도 및 첨도는 컴퓨터를 이용하여 통계 처리하였으며, Folk and Ward (1957)의 방법에 따라 퇴적물을 분류하였다. 이외에 수질 환경 및 저질의 감열 감 량 및 함수율 등은 상법에 따라 측정하였다. 2011년에 갯지렁이를 이식하고 연구를 계속 진행하여 왔 으며, 2012년 1월 궁항 갯벌의 퇴적물 함량은 10.2%가 모 래(sand)였으며, Mud(니질)이 89.8%였으나 조사 개시 3개 월 후에는 모래가 10.2%, Mud가 89.8%로 비슷하였고, 12 개월 후에는 모래가 9.5%, Mud가 90.5%로 모래질은 감소 하고 Mud는 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한, 갯지렁이를 이식한 실험구와 이식하지 않은 대조구의 Mud 함량은 대조 구의 경우, 실험 기간 동안 10.0%를 유지하고 있으나, 실험 구는 9.5%로 감소하였다. 이러한 결과는 갯지렁이를 퇴적 물에 수용하였을 경우, 잡식성인 갯지렁이의 먹이 활동시 퇴적물의 일부를 섭취하여 배설하는 과정에서 퇴적물의 함 량이 변화하는 것으로 추측할 수 있다. 따라서 본 연구 결과 는 갯지렁이와 같은 정착성 저서 생물을 이용하여 연안 갯 벌의 오염 환경을 개선할 수 있다는 가능성을 제시한다.
본 실험은 일당귀의 개화 후 일수에 따른 종자 등숙 특성을 알아보고자 수행하였다. 2019년 농촌진흥청 약용작물과 시험 포장에서 채종한 종자를 시험재료로 사용하였다. 개화 후 일수에 따라 종자 무게와 발아율이 조사되었고, 등숙 과정 동안 종자 내에서 배종비(E:S ratio)가 측정되었다. 결과적으로는 각 소화서마다 개화 후 일수가 증가할수록 종자 무게가 유의적으로 증가하였으며, 각 소화서에서 발아가 시작되는 시기는 차이가 있었다. 또한 종자 내에서 배의 길이는 계속해서 성장하여 배종비가 높아지는 것을 관찰하였다. 일당귀는 다양한 소화서에서 꽃이 피기 때문에 종자의 배종비가 종자 발아에 영향을 미칠 수 있다. 본 연구를 바탕으로 일당귀의 우량 종자 생산을 위해서는 개화 후 50일부터 70일경이 가장 적합한 것으로 사료된다.
Background : In previous study, we reported Sclerotium rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Ixeridium dentatum for the first time. This experiment was conducted to select highly effective pesticides against Sclerotium rot caused by S. rolfsii in I. dentatum.
Methods and Results : The chemical efficacy and the injury test were carried out. A total of five pesticides were used for the experiment test. For the efficacy test, we investigated spore germination and mycelial growth inhibiting ability by each pesticides in vitro and disease inhibiting ability in the field. For the chemical injury, we investigated appearance of abnormalities on condition of reference amount and fold amount in the field. In vitro, three kinds of chemicals such as Fludioxonil suspension concentrate (SC), Tebuconazole suspension concentrate (SC), and Flutolanil emulsifiable concentrate (EC) showed complete spore germination inhibitory effect, However in two chemicals such as Pyraclostrobin water-dispersible granule (WG) and Pyribencarb suspension concentrate (SC), the mycelial growth inhibitory effect was partially recognized but the spore germination was not inhibited. In the field, we performed an artificial inoculation experiment using sclerotia. As a result four kinds of chemicals such as Fludioxonil SC, Tebuconazole SC, Flutolanil EC, and Pyraclostrobin WG showed control value of above 80% against Sclerotium rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii except Pyribencarb SC. Also there was no chemical injury in reference amount and in fold amount respectively, compared to non treated control.
Conclusion : From the above results, we selected four items of pesticides including Fludioxonil SC, Tebuconazole SC, Flutolanil EC, and Pyraclostrobin WG as effective chemicals against Sclerotium rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Ixeridium dentatum.
Background : In the process of developing new disease-resistant cultivar of Rehmannia glutinosa, it is essential to screen plants based on resistance to their disease. But until now, we have relied on visual inspection for selection of disease-resistant cultivar. Therefore, this experiment was carried out to establish an efficient and reliable screening system and test the resistance to leaf spot disease in R. glutinosa cultivars developed until now.
Methods and Results : We have tested 11 R. glutinosa cultivars developed so far. Rootstock of R. glutinosa were sown in 20 × 20 ㎝ plastic square port and grown in green house at 25 ± 5℃ for four months and then cutting leaves were inoculated with Phoma sp. HCRD 17103 by spraying spore suspention of fungus at concentration of 1 × 107 spore/㎖. The inoculated leaves were incubated in a dew chamber at 25℃ for 48h and then transferred to glass house (25 ± 5℃, RH 80% ≥ ). After 3 - 5 days when the most susceptible cultivar had lesion area over 40%, disease severity of the cultivars was investigated on a scale of 0 - 9 (0 = healthy, 1 = 0 - 1%, 3 = 1.1 - 10%, 5 = 10.1 - 20%, 7 = 20.1 - 40%, 9 = 40.1% over). The degree of resistance was determined according to the disease index (0 and 1 = resistant, 3 = moderately resistant, 5, 7 and 9 = susceptible). As a result of experiments according to the above criteria, the disease index of cultivar Gogang, Dagang, Segang, Yeongang, Wongang, and Dahwang was 1, cultivar Togang, Daegyung, Jiwhang 1 and Goryeo was 3, cultivar Hwanggang was 9, respectively.
Conclusion : From the above results, six cultivars such as Gogang, Dagang, Segang, Yeongang, Wongang, and Dahwang were resistant, four cultivar such as Togang, Daegyung, Jiwhang 1 and Goryeo were moderately resistant, and only one cultivar Hwanggang was susceptible to the leaf spot disease by Phoma sp. This experiment used only leaves and we plan to use whole plants in the future to see more accurate resistance response.
Background : This study was conducted to investigate the production competitiveness of medicinal crop. The results of this study were intended to be used as basic data for establishing the direction of R&D needed for domestic medicinal crop farming system.
Methods and Results : For data analysis, frequency, percentage and average and Chi square (× 2) value were used. The survey showed that the cultivated crops of the respondents were medicinal crop. Firstly, there was a significant difference in farming disability by farming career. The 'cultivation method (60%, 42.1%)' was high in farming preparer and beginner (≤ 3 years), but the disability in 'cultivation method' decreased as the farming career was longer. Respondents who had more than 10 years of farming career complained of 'climate problem (24.0%)' followed by 'cultivation method (20.0%)' and 'pest control (20.0%)'. There was also a significant difference in the farming disability by medicinal crops farming career. The 'cultivation method (50.0%)' was the highest of the farmers who had 1 year of medicinal crops farming career, however the respondents with more than 4-ears of career complained of 'climate problems (27.3%)' and 'pest control (23.6%)', but 'cultivation method' was low as 18.2%. Secondly, there was a difference in sales disability by farming career, and cross-sectional analysis was statistically significant at × 2 = 41.320. The respondents who were preparer for farming had the biggest sales disability at 'shortage of market (44.4%)', and the rates decreased gradually as the farming career increased. Respondents more than 10-ears had the biggest sales disability as ‘uncertain market price (50.0%)’, and 'shortage of market' was low as 12.5%. Cross-sectional analysis of sales disability by medicinal crops farming career showed that × 2 was 49.705, which was statistically significant. Farmers with no career in cultivating medicinal crops had the biggest sales disability at 'shortage of market (40.0%)' and farmers with more than 4 years of career complained of 'uncertain market price (42.2%)'. Lastly, there was a statistically significant difference in cultivation performance by medicinal crops farming career. The respondents with a career of less than 1 year had the highest proportion at 'medium (48.5%)', but those with more than 4-ears of career had the highest rate of 'creation of profit (43.1%)'.
Conclusion : As farming career and medicinal crops farming career increased, environmental factors such as climate and pest problems affected in cultivation stage significantly, further uncertain market price gave a large factor in sales stage.
Background : Cnidium officinale M. is a medicinal plant used a lot of herbal and functional food ingredients. Recently, the area of cultivation has been increased due to the increase in domestic demand. By the way, this plant is very vulnerable to high temperature, and recently it is difficult to cultivate due to abnormal high temperature and so on. Therefore, in this study, in order to effectively reduce the high temperature of the field, we investigated the degree of temperature reduction and the growth condition of the plant after installed mulching, irrigation and the fog facilities.
Methods and Results : In order to reduce the temperature of C. officinale M. cultivation field, the black and white double vinyl mulching, drip irrigation and fog spray treatment were applied and the results were as follows. The survey was conducted at about 2:00 pm on a clear day in August, and the temperature was about 33℃ at the time of measurement. In the case of only black vinyl mulching without watering, the soil temperature was 43.5℃, the surface temperature was 61.4℃, and the mortality rate of the C. officinale M. was 98.0%. The temperature of soil and surface were lowered to 33.1℃ and 38.6℃, respectively, when treated with black vinyl mulching and drip irrigation and fog spraying. In the case of black and white double vinyl mulching, the effect of temperature reduction was better. The soil surface temperature of the non-irrigation treatment was 37.9℃, the surface temperature was 48.5℃ and the mortality rate was decreased to 6.7%. In case of combined drip irrigation and fog spraying, soil temperature was reduced to 31.5℃, surface temperature was 35.8℃, and mortality rate was 0%.
Conclusion : As a result of this study, the temperature of soil and surface dropped by up to 12. 0℃ and 25.6℃, respectively, when combined with black and white double vinyl mulching and drip irrigation and fog spray treatment. The mortality rate declined from 89.0% to 0%. Therefore, Therefore, if the results of this study are applied to the cultivation of C. officinale M., it is expected that the production stability will be improved.
Background : This study was conducted to investigate the seedling, growth, and yield characteristics of 1-year-old Polygala tenuifolia by cultivation of different regions.
Methods and Results : After growing the seedlings for 2 months in the greenhouse, they were planted at different altitudes including: 100 m or less (Cheongju), 250 m (negative), 300 m (Jecheon), and 500 m (Pyeongchang) in the first week of May. The flowering period, fertilization period, fruit weight, growth, and yield were recorded and investigated in that period. Results of analyzing the physicochemical properties of the soils revealed that the pH of the soil was close to neutrality of 6.7 - 7.3 at 100 m, 250 m, and 500 m altitudes and an acidity of pH 5.7 at 300 m altitude. The average temperature for different time periods and altitudes are the following: 3.8℃ from June to October during the harvesting season, 21.8℃ at 100 m altitude in the end of June, 10.8℃ at 500 m altitude in the middle of harvest period, and 2.7℃ higher at 100 m altitude than 500 m altitude. The difference in the number of rooting (between 11 and 12/㎡) and the rate of rooting (82 - 92%) was not significant. The plant length was 25 - 26.5 ㎝ at 300 m and 500 m altitude. The largest number of branch was at 1.8 with 250 m altitude and largest stalk diameter at 500 m altitude at 6.0 ㎜. Leaf length and leaf width were the same per area, but the branches were the largest at 500 m at 17.9. Dry weight of 12.7 g was heaviest at 500 m altitude implying that the higher the altitude, the higher the dry weight will be. Moreover, in the 500 m altitude, root length of 29.2 ㎝ was the longest, root diameter was 5.9 ㎜, and the dry root weight of 7.9 g was the heaviest. However, the number of supporting root was 4.9 - 7.3 which was not statistically significant. The optimal yield per 10 a was 94 ㎏ at 500 m altitude. This was very high compared to yield of 28 ㎏ at 100 m altitude. The seed weight per 10 a was 1.5 ㎏ and 2.3 ㎏ at 100 m and 300 m altitude, respectively. The highest content of Teuifolin contained in the root was 124.07 ppm at 500 m altitude.
Conclusion : Results showed that 1-year-old P. tenuifolia had optimal growth, higher yield and better vital component content at altitude of 500 m.
Background : During 2016 to 2017, Bacterial Rot symptom has been observed on Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. in Yeongju-si, Mungyeong-si, Jecheon-si and Eumseong-gun. This experiment was carried out to identify pathogenic bacteria that has not been reported up to now from A. macrocephala and to test pathogenicity of isolated bacteria against A. macrocephala.
Methods and Results : Nine types of representative bacteria strains depending on colony size and color were isolated from surface disinfested symptomatic tissue that was macerated and streaked onto lysogeny broth (LB) medium with agar. Fungi were not recovered from any tissue that was surface disinfested and placed into acidified potato dextrose agar. Only one strain cause dark brown leaf rot symptom on A. macrocephala leaves soaked in bacterial suspensions. Potted A. macrocephala plants were used to test for pathogenicity. Inoculum was prepared by suspending the bacteria in sterile distilled water (SDW) for a final concentration of approximately 105 CFU/㎖. Suspensions were sprayed until runoff onto three replicate plants. Control plants were sprayed with SDW until runoff. Plants maintained in a dew chamber with 100% relative humidity at 30℃. After 3 days, leaf rot lesions developed on all inoculated plants; lesions later turned dark brown and appeared similar to symptoms observed in the field. Plants treated with water developed no symptoms. Same bacteria re-isolated onto LB from symptomatic tissues.
Conclusion : On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the strain isolated from A. macrocephala was identified as Pseudomonas viridiflava. Biological assay method using Potted plants confirmed the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas viridiflava. This is the first report of bacterial rot caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava on A. macrocephala.
Backgoound : Various varieties of Schisandra chinensis (Omija) are grown in various regions of Korea. However, there is no study on varieties with excellent efficacy for each variety. Therefore, in this study, it is aimed to select the excellent lineage by analyzing the active compounds of Omija collection species
Methods and Results : 154 lineage of Omija was collected from Muju of Jeollabuk-do, Jangsu of Jeollabuk-do and Hoengseong of Gangwon-do. They were cultivated in test-research farm in Rural Development Administration at Eumseong of Chungcheongbuk-do and used as materials. In order to analyze the active compounds (Shizandrin A, Shizandrin C, Gomisin A, Gomisin N) in Omija, the HPLC method described in the Korean Pharmacopoeia (compounds of Omija indicator) was used. As a result of analysis of functional compounds, SC-003, SC-005, SC-013, SC-015, SC-019, SC-020, SC-022, SC-023, SC-040, SC-042, SC-045, SC-066, SC-069 and SC-072 were collected from Jangsu, Jeollabuk-do, SC-082 was collected from Hoengseong, Gangwon-do and SC-139 was collected from Muju, Jeollabuk-do showed higher contents of functional compounds than other collected species.
Conclusion : As demand for high income crop has increased, new cultivar breeding is required to produce high quality Schisandra chinensis (Omija). In this study, Shisandra A, Shizandrin C, Gomisin A and Gomisin N were analyzed as functional compounds of Omija. They can be used for new Omija breeding. Especially SC-003, SC-019, SC-022, SC-040, SC-045, SC-069 and SC-082 can be superior lineags with high functional compound contents.
Background : Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis F.) is one of the most widely used raw materials for food and pharmaceuticals, and is currently the No. 1 imported medicinal plant in Korea. Efforts to settle licorice cultivation in Korea have been carried out for hundreds of years but have not succeeded, and many people suspect that the reason is due to the inadequate cultivation environment. However, even until recently, most licorice has been procured by wild harvesting, so studies on licorice cultivation technique and cultivation environment have not been conducted much in the world. This experiment was conducted to investigate the germination characteristics of licorice by temperature and salt concentration in order to find the optimal cultivation environment conditions of licorice.
Methods and Results : The germination rate of licorice seeds was high 77.5 - 90.5% at 10 - 3 6℃, but it started to drop from 66.5 - 68.0% at 38 - 40℃ and it decreased sharply from 9.0 - 15.0% at 42 - 46℃. No longer germinated at temperatures above 48℃. The average number of days of germination was 12.3 days at 10℃, 5.7 days at 20℃, 3.5 days at 30℃ and 4.1 days at 40℃. The germination start date was 2 to 4 days in the 18℃ - 46℃ range. The average germination rate was the highest at 32℃. The germination time of 40% was 2 - 4 days at 18 - 46℃. The germination of more than 80% took 3 - 5 days at 20 - 40℃, 6 - 8 days at 14 - 1 8℃ and 10 days at 10 - 12℃. Licorice was able to germinate even in the presence of salt. Seed germination rate was 78.5 - 85.5% at 0 - 1% salt concentration and 63% at 1.5% and 18% at 2.0%. In addition, 8.5% seeds germinated successfully even at 3.0% salt concentration.
Conclusion : Licorice has been known as a low temperature crop, but germination was possible in a wide range of temperature and salt concentration. Especially, the germination characteristic was higher in the high temperature range of 30 - 36℃, which corresponds to the domestic summer temperature. Therefore, the results of this study are expected to be useful reference for exploring suitable cultivation area in Korea.
Background : This experiment was conducted to improve the farm income by decreasing the rate of corrosion and increasing the emergence rate by selecting the proper storage method of the medicinal crop seed root.
Methods and Result : Ten kinds of medicinal crop seed roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Codonopsis lanceolata, Platycodon grandiflorum, Atractylodes japonica, Angelica acutiloba, Adenophora triphylla, Rehmannia glutinosa, Angelica gigas and Cnidium officinale were used as test materials. In experiment 1, storage experiments were carried out using four treatments: untreated (dry in advance), untreated, filler (dry in advance) and filler. Drying in advance was carried for 2 days in dark place and the filler was vermiculite. For storage, in styrofoam box, seed roots were laid down in 3 replicates of 10 sets, stored in – 1℃ warehouse. The storage temperature was set as long as each seed root was not frozen investigating freezing point, supercooling point. As a result, the rate of corrosion was significantly lower in the 4th treatments (filler), such as A. japonica (30%) and A. gigas (10%), compared with untreated one. Therefore, in experiment 2, six treatments were carried out using filler. There were 6 treatments: filler disinfectant (dry in advance), filler disinfectant, filler biochar (dry in advance), filler biochar, filler disinfectant biochar (dry in advance) and filler disinfectant biochar. The disinfectant was used by metalaxyl-M at a concentration of 0.4 g/ℓ, and a biochar was used at a volume ratio of 50% (v/v). As a result, the rate of corrosion was significantly lower in the 6th treatment (filler disinfectant biochar), such as S. miltiorrhiza (13.3%) and C. lanceolata (6.7%).
Conclusion : In storing medicinal crop root, it is better to store using fillers. It was shown that a mixture of filler and disinfectant biochar reduced the rate of corrosion.
Background : Seed germination for Adenophora triphylla var. japonica Hara. is not good when grown in direct seeding. This experiment was conducted to identify seedling box suitable for seedling transplantation and cultivation to improve farm income and public health.
Methods and Result : To investigate the effect on growth, sizes of seedling box used were as follows (width × length × height, in ㎝); 2.5 × 2.5 × 4 (custom), 4 × 4 × 4, 4.5 × 4.5 × 6, 5.0 × 5 × 9.6, 5 × 5 × 11.2, 5 × 5 × 17, and for sowing in narrow strips; 33.5 × 55 × 13, 33.5 × 49 × 23, 33.5 × 49 × 30. The weight of the ground part decreased as box height became lower, highest at 17 ㎝ tall (0.65 g) and lowest at 4 ㎝ (0.23 g). In terms of root length of the seedlings, the longest was 9.0 - 9.3 ㎝ at box height of 17 ㎝ and decreased as height decreased. Root weight increased as box height decreased, the highest at 4 ㎝. After the seedlings were planted, more than 90% survived in seedling box compared to the 50% rooting rate on sown in narrow strips where root net formation did not occur. During harvesting period, plant height was 15.8 - 17.5 ㎝ with a shoot diameter of 13.3 - 20.7 ㎜, leaf length of 5.6 - 7.9 ㎝ and leaf numbers 15.6 - 22.3. Moreover, leaf width was the widest at 8.6 ㎝ at 6 ㎝ box height while dry weight was the most at 6.7 g at 11.2 ㎝. Survival rate and growth characteristics of the ground part were lower in seedling box for sowing in narrow strips. For the underground characteristics, root number increased as box height decreased while dry weight increased as box height increased, with 1.7 - 3.5 and 6.2 - 6.8 less in seedling box for sowing in narrow strips, respectively. The yield in a 17 ㎝ high seedling box was 152 ㎏ per 10 a, 16% higher than conventional level, and decreased as box height decreased.
Conclusion : These results suggest that the optimum seedling box height is 11.2 - 17 ㎝ to have lower root numbers and higher dry weight and yield.