이 연구는 코르크보드를 보강하여 건축부재 및 놀이기구의 안전부재 등으로 폭넓게 활용할 것을 목적으로 코르크보드의 중층에 금속, 유리섬유, 탄소섬유를 삽입하여 보강한 3종의 코르크복합보드를 제조하였고, 코르크복합보드의 수분흡수에 따른 치수안정성 및 접착층 박리성능을 조사하였다. 코르크복합보드의 흡수율은 0.37% - 0.45%의 범위에 있었고, 코르크보드에 비해 0.61배 - 0.74배의 낮은 값을 나타내었다. 코르크복합보드의 두께팽창률은 0.92% - 1.58%의 범위에 있었고, 코르크보드 보다 1.4 - 2.4배의 높은 값을 나타내었다. 그러나 이 값들은 일반 목질보드보다 현저히 낮았고, KS규격의 12%이하를 하회하는 것이 확인되었다. 코르크복합보드의 준내수 및 내수침지박리시험후의 접착층박리율은 0%로 전혀 접착층의 박리가 일어나지 않아 우수한 내수성을 나타내었고, 흡수율과 흡수두께팽창률은 상온침지에 비해 다소 증가하였으나, 목질보드에 관한 KS규격을 하회하는 우수한 치수안정성을 나타내는 것이 확인되었다.
In this study, numerical modeling on the gas flow and off-gases in the low temperature carbonization furnace for carbon fiber was analyzed. The furnace was designed for testing carbonization process of carbon fibers made from various precursors. Nitrogen gas was used as a working gas and it was treated as an incompressible ideal gas. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics for steady state turbulent flow was used to analyze flow pattern and temperature field in the furnace. The off-gas mass fraction and cumulative emission gas of species were incorporated into the CFD analyses by using the user defined function(UDF). As a results, during the carbonization process, the emission of CO2 was the dominant among the off-gases, and tow moving made the flow in the furnace be uniform.
Surface free energy is an important parameter in surface and interface properties of fiber reinforced polymer composite. The BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) surface area and surface energy of the sample can be obtained by Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) based on the adsorption principle. In this paper, surface energy of carbon fiber bundle was tested by means of IGC under different conditions to find reliable test parameters. The main parameters involved include length, mass, and packing density of sample, target fractional surface coverage, flow rate, and maximum elution time. It is demonstrated that IGC has the advantages of simple sample preparation, stable test data, high automation, and high sensitivity for carbon fiber. Among all test conditions, packing density and flow rate have the greatest influences on the experimental results. The optimized test parameters are suitable for various kinds of carbon fiber bundles, including polyacrylonitrilebased and pitch-based carbon fibers with different tensile properties and tow sizes. Moreover, IGC can acutely characterize the surface properties of carbon fibers after carbon nanotube modification and heat treatment, which are hard to carry out using contact angle method.
Carbon nanotube fiber is a promising material in electrical and electronic applications, such as, wires, cables, batteries, and supercapacitors. But the problem of joining carbon nanotube fiber is a main obstacle for its practical development. Since the traditional joining methods are unsuitable because of low efficiency or damage to the fiber structure, new methods are urgently required. In this study, the joining between carbon nanotube fiber was realized by deposited nickel–copper doublelayer metal via a meniscus-confined localized electrochemical deposition process. The microstructures of the double-layer metal joints under different deposition voltages were observed and studied. It turned out that a complete and defect-free joint could be fabricated under a suitable voltage of 5.25 V. The images of the joint cross section and interface between deposited metal and fiber indicated that the fiber structure remained unaffected by the deposited metal, and the introduction of nickel improved interface bonding of double-layer metal joint with fiber than copper joint. The electrical and mechanical properties of the joined fibers under different deposition voltages were studied. The results show that the introduction of nickel significantly improved the electrical and mechanical properties of the joined fiber. Under a suitable deposition voltage, the resistance of the joined fiber was 37.7% of the original fiber, and the bearing capacity of the joined fiber was no less than the original fiber. Under optimized condition, the fracture mode of the joined fibers was plastic fiber fracture.
Along with the development of the automobile industry, the materials and processing technology of parts have also developed. In particular, various materials have been developed and applied to automobile bumpers, which are directly related to crash safety. In particular, the application of composite materials is expanding for weight reduction. In this study, a new composite material made of a mixture of carbon fiber and aramid fiber was developed and the possibility of application to an automobile bumper was reviewed, and significant results were obtained.
국내 건설현장에서 장스팬 구조물이 증가함에 따라 콘크리트와 강재를 조합한 충전형합성보의 적용이 증가하고 있 다. 충전형합성보는 경제적이며 시공성이 향상되고 콘크리트 축열효과에 따라 내화성도 우수하다. 충전형합성보 내부에 휨성능 을 향상시키기 위해 Re-bar로 보강하여 사용한다. 이는 콘크리트 균열에 의해 부식 되어 내력저하를 유발한다. CFRP Re-bar는 경량이며 내부식성이 우수하다. 그러나 임계온도가 250℃로 낮기 때문에 화재에 취약으로 적절한 내화피복재를 적용해야된다. 따라서 열전달해석을 통해 내부 CFRP Re-bar가 보강된 충전형합성보의 온도분포를 확인하였다. 온도 상승에 따른 휨내력을 산 정하여 피복두께를 제안하고자 한다. 해석결과 단면크기에 상관없이 콘크리트 피복두께 40mm와 뿜칠내화피복재 20mm를 적용 하면 표준화재에서 3시간 내화성능을 확보하는 것으로 평가되었다.
Commercial carbon fiber cloth (CFC) is treated by the Joule-heating pyrolysis method in air to boost its capacitive performance on the premise of energy- and time-saving considerations. A thermoelectric coupling model suitable for the Jouleheating pyrolysis is successfully established based on the comparisons between the simulated temperatures and actually measured ones. The temperature field on CFC surface induced by the Joule heat presents a concentric-ellipse shape that the temperature in the core is the maximal and gradually decays outward. Increasing the direct current (DC) voltage which is applied to the CFC from 1.0 to 6.0 V, the core temperature on the CFC surface can be raised from 31 to 519 °C. The specific surface area and hydrophilicity of the as-prepared porous CFC are greatly improved compared with the pristine one. Electrochemical test shows that the optimal Joule-heating pyrolysis parameters falls at 5.0 V and 12.5 min, and the areal specific capacitance of as-obtained CFC-5.0-12.5 is about 80 folds that of the pristine CFC. In addition to the much shorter preparation time, all the characteristics including areal specific capacitance, rate performance, and electrical conductivity of the Joule-heating pyrolyzed CFC are superior to those of the electrical furnace pyrolyzed counterpart. The aqueous symmetrical supercapacitor made of CFC-5.0-12.5 electrodes exhibits considerable power and energy densities with respect to the previously reported carbon electrode-based supercapacitors. For conductive precursors, the Joule-heating pyrolysis can be an ideal substitute for the traditional electric furnace pyrolysis.
In this paper, the mechanical properties according to the rCF weight percent(10, 20, 30, 40, 50wt%) of the rCFRP specimen were evaluated and analyzed. First, to prepare rCFRP specimens, pellets were prepared according to the type of weight percent, and rCFRP tensile specimens according to ASTM D638 were prepared using an injection molding machine. Tensile tests were performed on each of 10 specimens according to weight percent conditions, and tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were calculated. For a detailed analysis of the correlation between the internal structure of the specimen and the mechanical properties, the weight percent to the constituent materials of the rCFRP specimen was calculated using mCT and used for the analysis of mechanical properties. For a more detailed analysis, a detailed analysis of the mechanical properties of rCFRP was performed through the fracture surface analysis of the specimen using FE-SEM.
To address the need for a suitable thermoplastic resin-based sizing agent for accommodating the increasing demands of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic, in this work, alcohol-soluble polyamide 6 (PA6) and silane were chemically combined in a certain ratio to improve the mechanical interface properties of the carbon fiber/PA6 composite, and the enhancement in the mechanical interface strength of the final composite according to the treatment time was confirmed. Carbon fiber surface properties were analyzed through ultrahigh-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The tensile strength of carbon fibers before and after hybrid sizing treatment and the mechanical interfacial shear strength of the final composite were analyzed using tensile and universal testing machines, respectively. After the hybrid sizing treatment, the introduction of the sizing agent to the carbon fiber surface was confirmed through FE-SEM, and a simultaneous increase in the surface roughness was observed. Moreover, the interfacial adhesion was confirmed to increase significantly, as compared to that of the desized carbon fiber. Therefore, this modified sizing agent treatment serves as an effective method for improving the mechanical interfacial adhesion between the carbon fiber and the PA6 matrix.
Carbon fibers (CFs) are considered promising composite materials for various applications. However, the high cost of CFs (as much as $26 per kg) limits their practical use in the automobile and energy industries. In this study, we developed a continuous stabilization process for manufacturing low-cost CFs. We employed a textile-grade polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber as a low-cost precursor and UV irradiation technique to shorten the thermal stabilization time. We confirmed that UV irradiation on the textile-grade PAN fibers could lower the initial thermal stabilization temperature and also lead to a higher reaction. These resulted in a shorter overall stabilization time and enhancement of the tensile properties of textilegrade PAN-based CFs. Our study found that only 70 min of stabilization time with UV irradiation was required to prepare textile-grade PAN-based low-cost CFs with a tensile strength of 2.37 ± 0.22GPa and tensile modulus of 249 ± 5 GPa.
Carbon fibers are commonly used in many specialized, high-performance applications such as race cars and aircraft due to their lightweight and high durability. The most important stage in the production of carbon fibers is the carbonization process. During this process, carbon fibers are subjected to high temperatures in the absence of oxygen to prevent fibers from burning. Labyrinth seals are attached to a carbonization furnace to prevent airflow into the furnace and to assist in the elimination of off-gases. This study investigated flow characteristics inside a carbonization furnace and the effects of different geometric parameters of labyrinth seals such as labyrinth tooth shape, number of teeth, and tooth clearance. Varying carbonization furnace operating conditions were also studied in regard to flow behavior, including fiber movement and outlet vacuum pressure. A high working gas flow rate at the furnace inlet resulted in recirculation zones. Properly regulated gas flow from the main and labyrinth inlets enabled uniform flow around the fibers’ inlet and outlet which prevented air from being trapped in the reactor. Flow behavior was minimally effected by changes to labyrinth seal geometry such as tooth length, tooth clearance, and outlet pressure. However, the movement of fibers had a clear effect on flow characteristics in the furnace.
The utilization of carbonaceous reinforcement-based polymer matrix composites in structural applications has become a hot topic in composite research. Although conventional carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs) have revolutionized the composite industry by offering unparalleled features, they are often plagued with a weak interface and lack of toughness. However, the promising aspects of carbon fiber-based fiber hybrid composites and hierarchical composites can compensate for these setbacks. This review provides a meticulous landscape and recent progress of polymer matrixbased different carbonaceous (carbon fiber, carbon nanotube, graphene, and nanodiamond) fillers reinforced composites’ mechanical properties. First, the mechanical performance of neat CFRP was exhaustively analyzed, attributing parameters were listed down, and CFRPs’ mechanical performance barriers were clearly outlined. Here, short carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composite was distinguished as a prospective material. Second, the strategic advantages of fiber hybrid composites over conventional CFRP were elucidated. Third, the mechanical performance of hierarchical composites based on carbon nanotube (1D), graphene (2D) and nanodiamond (0D) was expounded and evaluated against neat CFRP. Fourth, the review comprehensively discussed different fabrication methods, categorized them according to performance and suggested potential future directions. From here, the review sorted out three-dimensional printing (3DP) as the most futuristic fabrication method and thoroughly delivered its pros and cons in the context of the aforementioned carbonaceous materials. To conclude, the structural applications, current challenges and future prospects pertinent to these carbonaceous fillers reinforced composite materials were elaborated.
Acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) terpolymer was compounded with short carbon fiber (CF) and carbon nanotube (CNT) using a micro-extruder followed by the injection molding process. Composite samples were fabricated with loading ratios of 20 wt.% CF and 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% of CNT. Mechanical, electrical, thermo-mechanical, thermal, melt-flow, and structural investigations of ABS-based composites were conducted by performing tensile, impact, hardness, and wear tests, conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), melt flow rate test (MFR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization techniques, respectively. According to mechanical test data of resultant composites including tensile and impact test findings, CNT additions led to the remarkable increase in tensile strength and impact resistance for CF reinforced ABS composites. The formation of synergy between CNT nanoparticles and CF was confirmed by electrical conduction results. The conductive path in ABS/CF composite system was achieved by the incorporation of CNT with different loading levels. SEM micrographs of composites proved that CNT nanoparticles exhibited homogeneous dispersion into ABS matrix for lower loadings.