Graphite felt is a felt-like porous material made of high-temperature carbonized polymers. It is widely used in electrode materials because of its good temperature resistance, corrosion resistance, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. In this paper, the surface functional group modification is of graphite felt electrodes (mainly nitrogen doping modification, nitrogen–sulfur or nitrogen–boron co-doping modification) and surface catalytic modification (metal/ion surface modification and metal oxide surface modification as Main). There are two main methods and research progresses to improve the performance of graphite felt electrodes, and the comprehensive performance of surface functional group-modified graphite felt electrodes and surface catalytically modified graphite felt electrodes are compared respectively. The results show that both surface functional group modification and surface catalytic modification can improve the comprehensive performance of graphite felt electrodes. In this paper, the future development direction of graphite felt activation modification is also prospected.
The electro-Fenton (EF) process was first proposed in 1996 and, since then, considerable development has been achieved for its application in wastewater treatment, especially at lab and pilot scale. After more than 25 years, the high efficiency, versatility and environmental compatibility of EF process has been demonstrated. In this review, bibliometrics has been adopted as a tool that allows quantifying the development of EF as well as introducing some useful correlations. As a result, information is summarized in a more visual manner that can be easily analyzed and interpreted as compared to conventional reviewing. During the recent decades under review, 83 countries have contributed to the dramatic growth of EF publications, with China, Spain and France leading the publication output. The top 12 most cited articles, along with the top 32 most productive authors in the EF field, have been screened. Four stages have been identified as main descriptors of the development of EF throughout these years, being each stage characterized by relevant breakthroughs. To conclude, a general cognitive model for the EF process is proposed, including atomic, microscopic and macroscopic views, and future perspectives are discussed.
The research on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is in the advanced stage today. The only concern observed so far has been regarding its stability and efficiency. Its power conversion efficiency can be increased by incorporating various methods and materials based on nanotechnology. Several attempts have been employed to develop advanced methods for eco-friendly, commercially viable, and sustainable DSSCs to minimize the energy crisis in the future. Photoanode is one of the essential components of DSSCs that can be modified using different nanostructures to enhance its efficiency. The TiO2 nanoparticlebased photoanode with gold and silver has proven to be potent materials for getting efficient DSSCs. The plasmonic and quantum confinement effects also play a vital role in efficiency enhancement. In this review, we discuss numerous attempts made by researchers in the last decade to modify the photoanode and their progress. We also look at different types of nanostructures, such as quantum dots, metal oxide doping, layered structures, nanocomposites, and thin film formation, that improve the efficiency of DSSCs. Several methods were reviewed to modify photoanodes to optimize electron transportation, light scattering, trapping power, surface area, and reduce charge recombination. The trend in the efficiency enhancement of DSSCs using TiO2, Au, ZnO, Ag, and graphene nanostructures-based photoanodes have been explored in great detail.
Devices with negative differential transconductance (NDT) and negative differential resistance (NDR) have shown a strong potential for digital electronics with high information density due to their N-shaped current–voltage (I–V) characteristics leading to multiple threshold voltages ( Vths). The 2D materials, such as graphene, hBN, MoS2, WS2, etc., offer an attractive platform to achieve NDT and NDR because of the absence of dangling bonds on the surface, leading to a high-quality interface between the layers. The 2D materials' unique property of the weak van der Waals (vdW) interactions without dangling bonds on the heterostructure devices shows the way for the applications more than-Moore devices. This review holds a well-timed overview of 2D materials-based devices to develop future multi-valued logic (MVL) circuits exhibiting high information density. Notably, the recent advances in emerging 2D materials are reviewed to support the directions for future research on MVL applications.
A promising approach to enhance catalytic performance of supported heterogeneous nano-metal catalysts is to uniformly disperse active nanoparticles on the support. In this work, N-doped carbon-modified graphene (G@NC) nanosheet is designed and prepared to anchor Pd–Fe bimetallic nanoparticles (Pd–Fe/G@NC). The N-doped carbon modification on graphene surface could construct a sandwich-like structure (G@NC), which not only prevented the re-stacking of graphene nanosheets but also provided confined space for stable anchoring of bimetallic Pd–Fe nanoparticles. Benefitted from the unique structural property and synergetic effect of metal Pd and Fe species, the as-obtained Pd–Fe/G@NC composite displays excellent catalytic activity toward 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction with a turnover frequency of 613.2 min− 1, which is far superior to that of the mono-metal counterparts (Fe/G@NC and Pd/G@NC). More importantly, Pd–Fe/G@NC catalyst also exhibits favorable catalytic performance in the reduction of other nitroaromatic compounds (nitrobenzene, 4-nitrotoluene, 4-chloronitrobenzene, and so on). In addition, Pd–Fe/G@NC can catalyze the oxidation of furfuraldehyde to furoic acid with a high yield of 88.64%. This work provides a new guide for rationally designing and developing advanced supported heterogeneous bimetallic catalyst.
Hydrogen energy is a promising source of renewable and clean energy for various industries, such as chemical, automobile, and energy industries. Electrolysis of water is one of the basic methods for the production of hydrogen energy. However, the high overpotential of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in water electrolysis has hindered the effective production of hydrogen using this method. Thus, the development of high-efficiency non-precious metal-based electrocatalysts for OER is extremely significant. In this study, we adopted a one-step hydrothermal method to fabricate Ni-based catalysts with N/Sdual doped graphene oxide/carbon nanotube (GO/CNT) supports using thiourea ( CH4N2S) and urea as the S source and the N source. It was observed that the amount of thiourea utilized in the synthesis of the catalyst affected the morphology, composition, and the electrochemical properties of the catalyst. For a GO/CNT-to-thiourea mass ratio of 1:10, the catalyst exhibited the highest activity, where the OER overpotential was 320 mV at a current density of 10 mA/cm2. This was attributed to the high specific surface area, high conductivity, and fast electron transport channels of the N/S-dual doped GO/ CNT composite. Furthermore, sulfurization of the Ni particles to form nickel sulfide played a significant role in enhancing the catalytic performance.
Hydroxyl radical (OH radical) is the most harmful free radical amongst the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) responsible for numerous diseases of DNA damage like mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and ageing. Therefore, it is important to find a suitable scavenger for OH radical. In the present contribution, we aim to investigate the ability of pristine armchair-SWCNT and B/N/P-doped armchair-SWCNT to scavenge OH radicals using DFT calculations. The calculations reveal that the B/Pdoped armchair-SWCNTs can act as a better scavenger for OH radical compared to pristine armchair-SWCNT but N-doped armchair-SWCNT does not act as a better scavenger for OH radical compared to pristine armchair-SWCNT. Furthermore, the developed scavenger is examined in terms of large-scale availability, biocompatibility, conductivity, stability and reactivity. For both in vivo and in vitro studies, the work is found to useful for enhancing SWCNT as a free radical scavenger.
This work describes the synthesis and characterization of a heterogeneous catalyst consisting of piperazine-functionalized reduced graphene oxide decorated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles ( Fe3O4@rGO-NH), and the study of its catalytic activity as a magnetic heterogeneous catalyst for the Pechmann synthesis of coumarins. Catalyst Fe3O4@ rGO-NH was fully characterized by various techniques, including IR, XRD, TEM, VSM, TGA, and elemental analysis. Then, the catalyst was used as an efficient and easy-separable heterogeneous catalyst for the solvent-free synthesis of some coumarins by Pechmann reaction. The reaction was optimized in terms of reaction time and temperature, catalyst dosage, and the presence/absence of the solvent. Finally, the reusability of the catalyst was studied.
Carbon nanotube fiber is a promising material in electrical and electronic applications, such as, wires, cables, batteries, and supercapacitors. But the problem of joining carbon nanotube fiber is a main obstacle for its practical development. Since the traditional joining methods are unsuitable because of low efficiency or damage to the fiber structure, new methods are urgently required. In this study, the joining between carbon nanotube fiber was realized by deposited nickel–copper doublelayer metal via a meniscus-confined localized electrochemical deposition process. The microstructures of the double-layer metal joints under different deposition voltages were observed and studied. It turned out that a complete and defect-free joint could be fabricated under a suitable voltage of 5.25 V. The images of the joint cross section and interface between deposited metal and fiber indicated that the fiber structure remained unaffected by the deposited metal, and the introduction of nickel improved interface bonding of double-layer metal joint with fiber than copper joint. The electrical and mechanical properties of the joined fibers under different deposition voltages were studied. The results show that the introduction of nickel significantly improved the electrical and mechanical properties of the joined fiber. Under a suitable deposition voltage, the resistance of the joined fiber was 37.7% of the original fiber, and the bearing capacity of the joined fiber was no less than the original fiber. Under optimized condition, the fracture mode of the joined fibers was plastic fiber fracture.
Removing CO2 gas to address the global climate crisis is one of the most urgent agendas. To improve the CO2 adsorption ability of activated carbon, nitrogen plasma surface treatment was conducted. The effect of nitrogen plasma treatment on the surface chemistry and pore geometry of activated carbon was extensively analyzed. The porosity and surface groups of the activated carbon varied with the plasma treatment time. By plasma treatment for a few minutes, the microporosity and surface functionality could be simultaneously controlled. The changed microporosity and nitrogen groups affected the CO2 adsorption capacity and CO2 adsorption selectivity over N2. This simultaneous surface etching and functionalization effect could be achieved with a short operating time and low energy consumption.
Lead sulfide ( PbS ) nanocrystals anchored on nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes ( CNx ) have been synthesized employing an environmentally friendly and inexpensive wet chemistry process. CNx∕PbS composites have been examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Theorical ab initio calculations have been developed to determine the samples structural, morphological and optical properties to explain the experimental evidences. The PbS nanoparticles exhibit of 4 nm to 27 nm particle size with a face-centered cubic crystal structure and are homogeneously distributed along the carbon nanotubes. The nitrogen-doped CNTs acts as binding sites for the PbS clusters as ab initio theoretical study suggests.
In this paper, we presented a hybrid composite of graphene quantum dots (GQDs)-modified three-dimensional graphene nanoribbons (3D GNRs) composite linked by Fe3O4 and CoO nanoparticles through reflux and ultrasonic treatment with GQDs, denoted as 3D GQDs-Fe3O4/CoO@GNRs (3D GFCG). In this hybrid, the 3D GNRs framework strengthened the electrical conductivity and the synergistic effects between GQDs and 3D GFCG enhanced the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of the nanocomposite. The results imply that decorating GQDs with other electro-catalysts is an effective strategy to synergistically improve their ORR activity.
Cracks are an inevitable problem during the use of materials, and flexible sensors with self-healing capability are of great importance for applications in wearable devices and skin-like electronic devices. This paper prepared self-healing flexible strain sensors by compounding self-healing polyurethane with carbon nanotubes. First, by changing the ratio of disulfide bonds, a good balance between mechanical properties and self-healing efficiency was achieved in the prepared self-healing polyurethane. The most balanced sample reached 12.28 MPa in tensile strength, after 24 h of self-repair at 30 °C, the tensile strength was 7.75 MPa, and the self-repair efficiency was 63.11%; after 24 h of self-repair at 80 °C, the tensile strength was 11.64 MPa, and the self-repair efficiency reached 94.79%. Then the sensors prepared by compounding with carbon nanotubes showed a good electrochemical response, and both slow and fast repeated bending of the finger wearing the sensors yielded significantly different electrical signal changes, and the sensors were cut off and still had the same function after self-repair at 30 °C, demonstrating their excellent potential for applications in soft robots, wearable devices, etc.
The ultrasonic method is an alternative to the conventional route to produce structured carbon materials, offering the advantages of synthesis in a short period of time under room temperature. The main objective of this work is to synthesize a sulfonated mesoporous carbon catalyst from a phenolic resin composed of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde. The synthesis was performed by the soft-template method in an ultrasonic processor and the product was subsequently carbonized and sulfonated for application in the esterification model reaction. Functionalization with sulfuric acid of MCS5-6 h sample brought about a decrease in porosity but simultaneously resulted in the generation of functional groups of an acidic nature. The MCS5-6 h catalyst with a sulfonic density of 1.6 mmol g− 1, surface area of 402 m2 g− 1 and pore diameter of 10.6 nm maintained in mesoporous even after acid treatment. MCS5-6 h showed excellent activity in the esterification reaction with 95% oleic acid conversion. The recyclability of MCS5-6 h was satisfactory during five reaction cycles. The present work addressed a promising alternative for the synthesis of carbon catalysts using ultrasound irradiation, thus providing an alternative with a lower cost of time and energy for large-scale production.
Carbon dots (CDs) with tunable fluorescence emissions have been developed from a wide range of small organic molecules with various bottom-up syntheses. However, most of them were prepared under high temperatures and high pressures with long reaction times and tedious purification processes. In addition, previously reported carbon dots frequently displayed excitation-dependent emissions, which restrict their further applications. Herein, we present a simple and rapid microwaveassisted solvothermal synthesis of multicolour carbon dots with excitation-independent emissions. In ethylene glycol, the green (G)-CDs emitting at 537 nm with a quantum efficiency (QY) of 15% were obtained by using a single precursor of phloroglucinol, and blue (B)- and yellow (Y)-CDs emitting at 436 nm and 557 nm with QYs of 55% and 28% were derived with additives of o- and m-phenylenediamine, respectively. Analyses of their chemical structures and optical processes suggest that highly polymeric carbon dots were uniformly formed from the small molecules and their fluorescences were predominantly originated from rapid direct recombination. Furthermore, emissions at different wavelengths were mainly attributed to different degrees of oxidation (13.9%, 15.2% and 16.4% oxygen in B-, G- and Y-CDs, respectively) and different proportions of pyrrolic nitrogen (10.4% and 1.40% in B- and Y-CDs, respectively). To demonstrate the application feasibility, the obtained carbon dots were utilized for ion detection and anti-counterfeiting. Based on static quenching of the carbon dots’ fluorescence, micro amounts of ferric ion in water samples were detected selectively and reproducibly. Moreover, the anti-counterfeiting pattern constructed by the carbon dots emitted fluorescence under ultraviolet illumination, but concealed perfectly under daylight. This achievement is of great potential for developing multicolour carbon dots of high qualities.
Transition-metal phosphides (TMPs), a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), are limited in application because of its serious volume effect in the cycle. In this work, a simple electrospinning strategy was proposed to restrict the grain size of CoP nanocrystals by nano-confined effect of carbon nanofibers with ligands. The addition of ligands not only could realize the uniform dispersion of CoP nanocrystals, but also strengthen the bond between the metals and carbon nanofibers. As a result, the CoP/CNF composite exhibits excellent lithium storage performance, and its reversible specific capacity could reach 1016.4 mAh g− 1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g− 1. The research is anticipated to provide a new idea for the preparation of anode materials for lithium ion batteries.
Ammonia is considered a promising hydrogen carrier due to its high hydrogen density and liquefaction temperature. Considering that the energy efficiency generally decreases as chemical conversion is repeated, it is more efficient to directly use ammonia as a fuel for fuel cells. However, catalysts in direct ammonia fuel cells have the critical issues of sluggish ammonia oxidation reaction (AOR) rate and poisoning of reaction intermediates. In particular, the use of precious metal as cathodic catalysts has been limited due to ammonia crossover and poisoning. In this study, we introduce Fe-based single-atom catalysts with selective activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) even in the presence of ammonia. As the Fe content increased, the single-atom structure of the catalysts changed into Fe nanoparticles or carbides. Among our Fe–N–C catalysts, FeNC-50 with a Fe loading amount of 0.34 wt% showed the highest ORR performance regardless of the ammonia concentration. In particular, the difference in activity between the catalysts increased as the concentration increased. The FeNC-50 catalyst showed remarkable stability after 1000 cycles. Therefore, we believe that single-atom dispersion is an important factor in the development of stable non-precious catalysts with high activity and inactivity for the ORR and AOR, respectively.
The surface of carbon films deposited with inverted plasma fireballs is analysed in this paper. Measurements were conducted with Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation. The latter was used to obtain Young’s modulus as well as Martens and Vickers hardness. The roughness of the film was measured by atomic force microscopy and its thickness was measured. It was shown with Raman spectroscopy that the films are homogeneous in terms of atomic composition and layer thickness over an area of about 125 × 125 mm. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that inverted plasma fireballs are a viable tool for obtaining homogeneous, large area carbon films with rapid growth and very little energy consumption. The obtained films show very low roughness.
Adsorption of arsenic by graphene-based adsorbents is widely applied to remove arsenic from water and has become a promising technology. However, most of the reported studies were conducted at a relatively higher concentration of arsenic in As (V) oxidative form, whereas the As (III) is more difficult to remove from water and more toxic, which prompted us to conduct the study at a lower concentration of 1 ppm in As (III). A Facile and controlled synthesis of graphene-based metal/ metal oxide nanomaterials and adsorptive removal of aqueous As (III) is reported here. Adsorbents were characterized using spectroscopy (FTIR, XPS and Raman) and microscopy (TEM). The maximum uptake of arsenic obtained was 88.8% from the RGO-Fe3O4 composite among all the adsorbents. The pseudo-second-order model and Intra-particle mass transfer diffusion model were applied to determine the adsorption kinetics with varying contact time between the adsorbents and the As (III) in water to interact. Experimental results suggest that the adsorption of As (III) onto the adsorbents was a multi-step process involving external adsorption to the surface followed by diffusion to the interior. A simple spectrophotometric method also was used for the detection and quantification of As (III).
The present study focuses on the adsorption of organic matter mainly COD from pretreated landfill leachate of Lamdeng Khunou Solid Waste Management Plant, Manipur, India through the employment of H3PO4 treated activated carbon derived from Parkia speciosa (Petai) pods (PPAC). The adsorbent was analyzed for morphological and surface characterization by various methods including, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and pH at zero point charges ( pHZPC). The impacts of adsorption processes such as initial pH, temperature, equilibrium time and dose of adsorbent were considered to evaluate the performance of PPAC. At 20 °C, PPAC showed maximum COD removal of 93% within 90 min contact time, at optimum pH 2. Adsorption kinetic was able to explain by Lagergren’s pseudo-second-order equation and intraparticular diffusion models suggesting the combined behavior of both the physical and chemical adsorption of COD on PPAC. Through thermodynamics and isotherm studies, the adsorption of COD on PPAC is revealed to be exothermic with maximum monolayer coverage of 200 mg COD/g PPAC. The performance of the PPAC adsorbent is also compared with other existing reported adsorbents for treating leachate.