During a 3-year period (2001-2004) 18 animals were surgically treated because of abdominal wall defects (hernia). Out of 18 animals 8 were bovines, 5 caprines and 5 canines. In each case the defect was bridged with carbon fibres. Carbon fibres were placed either in simple interrupted pattern or as mattress overlapping pattern. All the cases were successfully treated and no complication was observed up to six months postoperatively.
This paper describes the physical properties of filled Nylon6 composites resin with nano-sized carbon black particle and graphite nanofibers prepared by melt extrusion method. In improving adhesions between resin and fillers, the surface of the carbon filler materials were chemically modified by thermo-oxidative treatments and followed by treatments of silane coupling agent. Crystallization temperature and rate of crystallization increased with increases in filler concentration which would act as nuclei for crystallization. The silane treatments on the filler materials showed effect of reduction in crystallization temperature, possibly from enhancement in wetting property of the surface of the filler materials. Percolation transition phenomenon at which the volume resistivity was sharply decreased was observed above 9 wt% of carbon black and above 6 wt% of graphite nanofiber. The graphite nanofibers contributed to more effectively in an increase in electrical conductivity than carbon black did, on the other hand, the silane coupling agent negatively affected to the electrical conductivity due to the insulating property of the silane. Positive temperature coefficient (PTC) phenomenon, was observed as usual in other composites, that is, temperature increase results conductivity increase. The dispersity of the fillers were excellently approached by melt extrusion of co-rotational twin screw type and it could be illustrated by X-ray diffraction and SEM.
The influence of carbon surface area, carbon-oxygen groups associated with the carbon surface and the solution pH on the adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions has been studied using three activated carbons. The adsorption isotherms are Type I of BET classification and the data obeys Langmuir adsorption equation. The BET surface area has little effect on the adsorption while it is strongly influenced by the presence of acidic carbon oxygen surface groups. The amount of these surface groups was enhanced by oxidation of the carbons with different oxidizing agents and reduced by eliminating these groups on degassing at different temperatures. The adsorption of Pb(II) ions increases on each oxidation and decreases on degassing the oxidized carbons. The increase in adsorption on oxidation has been attributed to the formation of acidic carbon-oxygen surface groups and the decrease to the elimination of these acidic surface groups on degassing. The adsorption is also influenced by the pH of the aqueous solution. The adsorption is only small at pH values lower than 3 but is considerably larger at higher pH values. Suitable mechanisms consistent with the adsorption data have been suggested.
The electro-chemical removal (ECR) of water pollutants by metal-ACF electrodes from wastewater was investigated over wide range of ECR time. The ECR capacities of metallic ACF electrodes were related to physical properties such as adsorption isotherm, surface area and pore size and to reaction time. Surface morphologies and elemental analysis for the metal supported ACFs after electro-catalytic reaction were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy disperse X-ray (EDX) to explain the changes in adsorption properties. The IR spectra of metallic ACFs for the investigation of functional groups show that the electro-catalytic treatment is consequently associated with the removal of pollutants with the increasing surface reactivity of the activated carbon fibers. The metal-ACFs were electro-catalytically reacted to waste water to investigate the removal efficiency for the COD, T-N, NH4-N, NO3-N and NO2-N. From these removal results of the piggery waste using metallic ACFs substrate, satisfactory removal performance was achieved. The removal efficiency of the metallic ACFs substrate was mainly determined by the properties of the material for adsorption and trapping of organics, and catalytic effects.
Isotropic pitch-based carbon fiber has been activated by steam diluted in nitrogen in order to characterize the microporosity. Especially, 40 wt% burn-off ACFs were prepared from different conditions to compare the pore structure and size. The ACFs were thinly sliced to investigate the inside pores by TEM and image analyzer. As expected, the adsorption characteristics of these ACFs were quite different from one another because of different pore structure and size. Most pores are not slit-shaped but rather round. Small round micropores become broad and irregular as increasing the activation time and temperature.