In polymer precursor based activated carbon, the structure of starting material is likely to have profound effect on the surface properties of end product. To investigate this aspect phenolic resins of different types were prepared using phenol, mcresol and formaldehyde as reactants and Et3N and NH4OH as catalyst. Out of these resins two resol resins PFR1 and CFR1 (prepared in excess of formaldehyde using Et3N as catalyst in the basic pH range) were used as raw materials for the preparation of activated carbons by both chemical and physical activation methods. In chemical activation process both the resins gave activated carbons with high surface areas i.e. 2384 and 2895 m2/g, but pore size distribution in PFR1 resin calculated from Horvath-Kawazoe method, contributes mainly in micropore range i.e. 84.1~88.7 volume percent of pores was covered by micropores. Whereas CFR1 resin when activated with KOH for 2h time, a considerable amount (32.8%) of mesopores was introduced in activated carbon prepared. Physical activation with CO2 leads to the formation of activated carbon with a wide range of surface area (503~1119 m2/g) with both of these resins. The maximum pore volume percentage was obtained in 3-20 a region by physical activation method.
A study on the electrosorption of uranium ions onto a porous activated carbon fiber (ACF) was performed to treat uraniumcontaining lagoon sludge. The result of the continuous flow-through cell electrosorption experiments showed that the applied negative potential increased the adsorption kinetics and capacity in comparison to the open-circuit potential (OCP) adsorption for uranium ions. Effective U(VI) removal is accomplished when a negative potential is applied to the activated carbon fiber (ACF) electrode. For a feed concentration of 100 mg/L, the concentration of U(VI) in the cell effluent is reduced to less than 1 mg/L. The selective removal of uranium ions from electrolyte was possible by the electrosorption process.
In this work, the effect of a direct oxyfluorination on surface and mechanical interfacial properties of PAN-based carbon fibers is investigated. The changes of surface functional groups and chemical composition of the oxyfluorinated carbon fibers are determined by FT-IR and XPS measurements, respectively. ILSS of the composites is also studied in terms of oxyfluorination conditions. As a result, FT-IR exhibits that the carboxyl/ester groups (C=O) at 1632 cm-1 and hydroxyl group (O-H) at 3450 cm-1 are observed in the oxyfluorinated carbon fibers. Especially, the oxyfluorinated carbon fibers have a higher O-H peak intensity than that of the fluorinated ones. XPS result also shows that the surface functional groups, including C-O, C=O, HO-C=O, and C-Fx after oxyfluorination are formed on the carbon fiber surfaces, which are more efficient and reactive to undergo an interfacial reaction to matrix materials. Moreover, the formation of C-Fx physical bonding of the carbon fibers with fluorine increases the surface polarity of the fibers, resulting in increasing ILSS of the composites. This is probably due to the improvement of interfacial adhesion between fibers and matrix resins.
Four kinds of plasma blacks were prepared by plasma pyrolysis under various metallic catalysts coated on honeycomb, and investigated the catalytic effect on the characteristics of the plasma blacks prepared under plasma pyrolysis condition. Pt, Pt-Rh, and Pd catalysts were employed as active materials to prepare the plasma blacks. In the experimental range studied, the metallic catalysts influenced on surface area, particle size, surface oxygen content and electrical conductivity of the plasma blacks prepared. It was showed that more dense particle of plasma blacks were prepared under existence of metallic catalysts. Presence of the metallic catalyst reduces the electrical resistivity of plasma blacks due to the decrease in the amount of oxygen functional groups. The highest electrical conductivity of plasma black was observed in the Pt catalyst and then followed by those Pt-Rh, Pd and bare cordierite honeycomb.
MCMB (mesocarbon microbeads) has been synthesized from coal tar pitch, petroleum pitch and polymer compound generally. But yield of MCMB was low about 20~40 wt% and was not above 50 wt%. Neither MCMB was replaced with natural graphite because of economic performance, refining MCMB, and control of the particle size distribution. This study was performed to elevate yield of MCMB and to develop technique of particle size distribution. As the result, yield of MCMB that was synthesized from coal tar pitch increased more than 60 wt% about raw material and particle size of MCMB was restrained according to control of QI (quinoline insoluble) ingredient in raw pitch, heat treatment temperature and time.
A series of micro- and mesoporous activated carbons were prepared from two kinds of phenolic resin using a metal treated chemical activation methodology. N2-adsorption data were used to characterize the surface properties of the produced activated carbons. Results of the surface properties and pore distribution analysis showed that phenolic resin can be successfully converted to micro- and mesoporous activated carbons with specific surface areas higher than 973 m2/g. Activated carbons with porous structure were produced by controlling the amount of metal chlorides (CuCl2). Pore evolvement depends on the amount of additional metal chloride and precursors used. From the SEM and EDX data, copper contents were shown to be most effected by the incremental addition of metal chloride.