In this study, the effects of carbon black (CB) content and anodic oxidation treatment with AgNO3 on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) behavior of CB/HDPE nanocomposites were investigated. Also, the addition of elastomer as a toughing agent was studied. The 20~50 wt% of CB, 0~5 wtt% of elastomer, and 1 wt% of AgNO3-filled HDPE nanocomposites were prepared using the internal mixer in 60 rpm at 160˚C and the compression-molded at 180˚C for 10 min. As a result, the room temperature resistivity and PTC intensity of the composites were dependent, to a large extent, on the content of CB, addition of elastomer, and surface chemical properties that were controlled in the relative arrangements of the carbon black aggregates in a polymeric matrix. Moreover, the composites with relatively low room temperature resistivity and suitable PTC intensity could be achieved by treatment of AgNO3. Consequently, it was noted that PTC effect was due to the deagglomeration or the breakage of the conductive networks caused by thermal expansion or crystalline melting of the polymeric matrix.
Modification of C/C composite bipolar plate for improving electrical conductivity was carried out by addition of electroconductive carbon black (EC-CB). Carbon black was carefully mixed to methanol-containing phenolic resin, impregnated into 2D-carbon fabrics, hot pressed and then carbonized to obtain composite plate. Inclusion of electro-conductive carbon black enhanced the electrical conductivity of the C/C composites by increasing the conduction path. Addition of 10 vol% carbon black increased the electrical conductivity from 5.5/Ωcm to 32/Ωcm and reduced the crack formation by filling effect, resulting in the increase of flexural properties of composite plate. However, at carbon black content over 10 vol%, flexural properties decreased by delaminating role of excess carbon black at the interface in C/C composites.
A petroleum-based isotropic pitch fiber spun by melt-blown method was oxidized in air flow at various conditions. The oxidized pitch fiber obtained was tested for its infusibility and its elemental composition during the process of stabilization. The structural changes were traced by using solvent solubility, FT-IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The samples showed a gradual increase in weight with increasing the oxidization temperature. The weight gain of sample oxidized at 320℃ for 10 min was about 4.5%. The concentration of the pyridine and toluene soluble fraction decreased with an increase in stabilization temperatures. The oxygen uptaken in the stabilization process converted aliphatic side chains into the carbonyl groups. As stabilization proceeded, the more ether and carboxylic acid groups were formed through the oxidations of aldehyde and primary alcohol, and then the carboxylic acid was dehydrated to be aromatic anhydride.
A series of activated carbons were prepared from coconut shells and coal-tar pitch binder by physical activation with steam in this study. The effect of variable processes such as activation temperature, activation time and ratio of mixing was investigated for optimizing those preparation parameters. The activation processes were carried out continuously. The nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K on pellet-shaped activated carbons show the same trend of Type I by IUPAC classification. The average pore sizes were about 19-21a. The specific surface areas (SBET) of pellet typed ACs increased with increasing the activation temperature and time. Specific surface area of AC treated for 90 min at temperature 900℃ was 1082 m2/g. The methylene blue numbers continuously increased with increasing the activation temperature and time. On the other hand, iodine numbers highly increased till activation time of 60 min, but the rate of increase of iodine numbers decreased after that time. This indicates that new micropores were created and the existing micropores turned into mesopores and macropores because of increased reactivity of carbon surface and H2O.
Quinoline insoluble formed by the heat treatment was hot-pressed near its softening point. The green body was stabilized in the temperature range of 300~400℃ and subsequently carbonized below 1300℃ in an argon atmosphere. The behaviors of QI formation was examined with varying the heat treatment temperature and the lapse of time of the sample carbonized at various temperatures. And the mechanical property, corrosion resistance, and friction behavior were also measured optimum content of mesophase pitch ensured a dense structure and high LC(002) value, which resulted in high mechanical properties, good corrosion resistance, and low-stable friction behavior.
The Carbon/Carbon composite was prepared from 3D carbon fiber preform and coal tar pitch as matrix precursor. In order to evaluate of ablative characteristics of the composite, liquid rocket system was employed Kerosene and liquid oxygen was used as propellants, operating at a nominal chamber pressure of 330 psi and a nominal mixture ratio (O/F) of 2.0. The results of an experimental evaluation were that high density composite exhibited high, while low density composites showed low erosion resistance. The erosion rate against heat flux was highly depended on the density of the materials. The morphology of eroded fiber showed differently according to collision angle with heat flux on the composite. The granular matrix which derived from carbonization pressure of 900 bar was more resistance to heat flux than well-developed flow type matrix.