Food toxins are regarded as a major source of health risks, serious illnesses susceptible to even death. These dangerous pathogens may lead to significant economic impact worldwide. The food production chain undergoes different stages like harvesting, processing, storage, packaging, distribution, and lastly preparation, and consumption. Therefore, each step is susceptible to risks of environmental contamination. Nowadays, the carbon quantum dots (CDs) are regarded as one of the most widely used hybrid carbon nanomaterials due to their different magical physical and chemical properties. The CDs have a size below 10 nm and show the fluorescent property. The CDs find vast applications in different fields like sensing, food safety, drug delivery, bioimaging, catalyst, energy conversion, etc. Compared to other available methods, the fluorescence detection techniques have low cost, easy handling, and safe operating system. There is a need for a review to compile the fluorescence properties of carbon nanodots used to detect food pathogens. This brief review is addressed in that direction and mostly focused on the synthesis of carbon dots-based fluorescence sensors for detecting pathogens and toxins in foods and beverages. The detailed mechanisms and origin of fluorescence properties of carbon quantum dots are also highlighted herewith.
In preparation of porous carbon materials microwave oven brightening is one of the warming modes used ever. The various procedures that take place in microwave combustion process include carbonization, incitation, and recovery and thus carbon is defined. This paper compares ideal conditions of traditional warming methods, as well as their implementation potential, losses, and specifications. This porous carbon with heat treatment possesses various properties and they are well suited for energy applications which require constrained space such as hydrogen storage in solid-state and supercapacitors. The enhanced properties are chemical and thermal stability, ready availability, low framework density and ease of processability. The recent trend in class of porous carbons is Activated Carbons that are employed traditionally as adsorbents or catalyst supporters but currently, they found potent applications in fabricating for hydrogen storage materials and supercapacitors. These activated carbons are much enhanced form in class of porous carbon materials and they possess the capability to enable hydrogen economy, where the energy carrier is hydrogen. Therefore, the utility of activated carbons as a source for energy storage experiences a rapid growth at current trend and they possess significant advances. This investigation is based on detailed cost development data and electrical imperativeness applications.
The utilization of carbonaceous reinforcement-based polymer matrix composites in structural applications has become a hot topic in composite research. Although conventional carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs) have revolutionized the composite industry by offering unparalleled features, they are often plagued with a weak interface and lack of toughness. However, the promising aspects of carbon fiber-based fiber hybrid composites and hierarchical composites can compensate for these setbacks. This review provides a meticulous landscape and recent progress of polymer matrixbased different carbonaceous (carbon fiber, carbon nanotube, graphene, and nanodiamond) fillers reinforced composites’ mechanical properties. First, the mechanical performance of neat CFRP was exhaustively analyzed, attributing parameters were listed down, and CFRPs’ mechanical performance barriers were clearly outlined. Here, short carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composite was distinguished as a prospective material. Second, the strategic advantages of fiber hybrid composites over conventional CFRP were elucidated. Third, the mechanical performance of hierarchical composites based on carbon nanotube (1D), graphene (2D) and nanodiamond (0D) was expounded and evaluated against neat CFRP. Fourth, the review comprehensively discussed different fabrication methods, categorized them according to performance and suggested potential future directions. From here, the review sorted out three-dimensional printing (3DP) as the most futuristic fabrication method and thoroughly delivered its pros and cons in the context of the aforementioned carbonaceous materials. To conclude, the structural applications, current challenges and future prospects pertinent to these carbonaceous fillers reinforced composite materials were elaborated.
In the past decade, there has been phenomenal progress in the field of nanomaterials, especially in the area of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In this review, we have elucidated a contemporary synopsis of properties, synthesis, functionalization, toxicity, and several potential biomedical applications of CNTs. Researchers have reported remarkable mechanical, electronic, and physical properties of CNTs which makes their applications so versatile. Functionalization of CNTs has been valuable in modifying their properties, expanding their applications, and reducing their toxicity. In recent years, the use of CNTs in biomedical applications has grown exponentially as they are utilized in the field of drug delivery, tissue engineering, biosensors, bioimaging, and cancer treatment. CNTs can increase the lifespan of drugs in humans and facilitate their delivery directly to the targeted cells; they are also highly efficient biocompatible biosensors and bioimaging agents. CNTs have also shown great results in detecting the SARS COVID-19 virus and in the field of cancer treatment and tissue engineering which is substantially required looking at the present conditions. The concerns about CNTs include cytotoxicity faced in in vivo biomedical applications and its high manufacturing cost are discussed in the review.
With the aim to fabricate flexible, mobile, and low-energy powered electronics, laser treatment of paper-based materials from carbon, cellulose, and natural products may be viable as one of the strategies to achieve this objective as it potentially provides a sustainable and precise patterning of a graphene-based circuit for various emerging electronic applications, such as sensor, robot, energy, and memory devices. Irradiation of high-energy beam for induction of porous-rich graphene or reduction of graphene oxide is easily accomplished from a commercially available laser machine with various laser sources, power, and pulse number setting. Moreover, the process itself can easily be adapted in the various manufacturing sectors due to the technology’s maturity status and its ability to be computer programmed. In comparison to environmental-benign polymer, the selection of paper as a substrate for electronics may introduce a new idea into the design possibility of electronic devices since the paper is not only thin, lightweight, biodegradable, and mechanically stable, but is also able to be assembled into another form and shape simply by traditional origami and kirigami technique for many applications. Here, in this work, recent laser processing strategies for the preparation of graphene either from graphitization of cellulose or deoxygenation of graphene oxide for green electronics are reviewed with brief coverage of the deposition technique of graphene oxide paper prior to laser annealing and discussion on the emerging relevant electronics field that benefitted greatly from the laser-assisted fabrication. To conclude the literature study, a remaining challenge, and prospective outlooks of laser writing of graphene on paper are also highlighted.
Molybdenum disulfide ( MoS2) has been one of the most promising members of transition-metal dichalcogenides materials. Attributed to the excellent electrical performance and special physical properties, MoS2 has been broadly applied in semiconductor devices, such as field effect transistors (FETs). At present, the exploration of further improving the performance of MoS2- based FETs (such as increasing the carrier mobility and scaling) has encountered a bottleneck, and the application of high-κ gate dielectrics has become an effective approach to change this situation. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables high-quality integration of MoS2 and high-κ gate dielectrics at the atomic level. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the fabrication of two-dimensional MoS2 FETs using ALD high-κ materials as gate dielectrics. We first briefly discuss the research background of MoS2 FETs. Second, we expound the electrical and other essential properties of high-κ gate dielectrics, which are essential to the performance of MoS2 FETs. Finally, we focus on the advances in fabricating MoS2 FETs with ALD high-κ gate dielectrics on MoS2, as well as the optimized ALD processes. In addition, we also look forward to the development prospect of this field.
A composite photocatalyst of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles decorated with different content of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was prepared via a simple and facile one-step method in this paper. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectra, and UV–Vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS) were used to characterize the crystal structure, morphology and optical properties of the rGO–ZnO composite photocatalyst. The photocatalytic properties of the composites were investigated using methyl orange (MO), a typical orange compound, as a test pollutant. The results showed that rGO–ZnO composites displayed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity in MO degradation than pure ZnO, and the pseudo-first-order kinetic constant on the optimal rGO–ZnO composite was 14 times as great as that on pure ZnO. The enhanced photocatalytic ability of the rGO-ZnO composites was mainly benefited from the high specific surface area and high conductivity of rGO, which facilitated efficient charge separation in the rGO-ZnO nanocomposite.
Pentachlorophenol (PCP), as one of the common pesticide and preservatives, is easily accumulated in living organisms. Considering the high toxicity of PCP, the development of an effective and sensitive inspection method to determine the residual trace amounts of PCP continues to be a significant challenge. Herein, a convenient and sensitive electrochemical sensor is constructed by modifying glassy carbon electrode with cerium dioxide ( CeO2) nanoparticles anchored graphene ( CeO2-GR) to detect trace PCP. Benefiting from the two-dimensional lamellar structural advantages, the extraordinary electron-transfer properties, as well as the intensive coupling effect between CeO2 nanoparticles and graphene, the afforded CeO2- GR electrode nanomaterial possesses excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of PCP. Under the optimum synthetic conditions, the PCP oxidation peak currents of developed CeO2– GR sample exhibit a wide linear range of 5–150 μM. Moreover, the corresponding detection limit of PCP on the CeO2– GR electrode is as low as 0.5 μM. Apart from providing a promising electrochemical sensor, this work, most importantly, promotes an efficient route for the construction of highly active sensing electrode materials.
The central theme of this work is the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) through the chemical vapor deposition method (CVD). Single-walled carbon nanotubes are synthesized using catalyst-chemical vapor deposition of acetylene at 750 °C temperature. X-ray diffraction study gives a characteristic peak (002) at 26.55° corresponding to the existence of carbon nanotube confirms that the particles are crystalline in nature and hexagonal phase. An SEM and HRTEM outcome gives surface morphology of SWCNTs. The elemental composition was confirmed by EDAX. The ideal concentration of single-walled carbon nanotubes was used to design a novel electrochemical sensor for determining paracetamol (PA) using cyclic voltammetry. Electrochemical determination of paracetamol is described using a single-walled carbon nanotube modified carbon paste electrode (SWCNT/MCPE). The SWCNT/MCPE was used in this study to detect paracetamol electrochemically at pH 7.2 in a 0.2 M PBS with a scan rate of 50 mV s− 1. A single-walled nanotube modified carbon paste electrode was used to develop a sensitive and selective electrochemical technique for the detection of PA. The SWCNT/MCPE showed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of paracetamol in phosphate buffer solution. Therefore, with increased oxidation currents, the voltammetric responses of paracetamol at the bare carbon paste electrode are organized within cyclic voltammetric peaks.
Carbon fibers are commonly used in many specialized, high-performance applications such as race cars and aircraft due to their lightweight and high durability. The most important stage in the production of carbon fibers is the carbonization process. During this process, carbon fibers are subjected to high temperatures in the absence of oxygen to prevent fibers from burning. Labyrinth seals are attached to a carbonization furnace to prevent airflow into the furnace and to assist in the elimination of off-gases. This study investigated flow characteristics inside a carbonization furnace and the effects of different geometric parameters of labyrinth seals such as labyrinth tooth shape, number of teeth, and tooth clearance. Varying carbonization furnace operating conditions were also studied in regard to flow behavior, including fiber movement and outlet vacuum pressure. A high working gas flow rate at the furnace inlet resulted in recirculation zones. Properly regulated gas flow from the main and labyrinth inlets enabled uniform flow around the fibers’ inlet and outlet which prevented air from being trapped in the reactor. Flow behavior was minimally effected by changes to labyrinth seal geometry such as tooth length, tooth clearance, and outlet pressure. However, the movement of fibers had a clear effect on flow characteristics in the furnace.
One of the promising supercapacitors for next-generation energy storage is zinc-ion hybrid supercapacitors. For the anode materials of the hybrid supercapacitors, three-dimensional (3D) graphene frameworks are promising electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors due to their intrinsic interconnectivity, excellent electrical conductivity, and high specific surface area. However, the traditional route by which 3D graphene frameworks are synthesized is energy- and time-intensive and difficult to apply on a large scale due to environmental risks. Here, we describe a simple, economical, and scalable method of fabricating grafoil (GF) directly into a graphite–graphene architecture. Both synthesizing of a porous structure and functionalization with interconnected graphene sheets can be simultaneously achieved using electrochemically modified graphite. The resultant graphite electrode provides a high capacitance of 140 mF/cm2 at 1 mA/cm2, 3.5 times higher than that of pristine grafoil, keeping 60.1% of its capacitance when the current density increases from 1 to 10 mA/cm2. Thus, the method to produce 3D graphene-based electrodes introduced in the current study is promising for the applications of energy storage devices.
This study investigates the preparation of activated carbon fiber derived from waste cotton fabric for economical and ecofriendly recycling as well as its application to water purification. The activated carbon fiber was prepared by physical activation using steam and the adsorption property was then evaluated using methylene blue. When the activation temperature increased, the specific surface area and mesopore volume of the activated carbon fiber increased up to 2562 m2/ g and 0.214 cm3/ g, resulting in the increased adsorption of methylene blue. The results of the adsorption experiment for the activated carbon fiber were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The Langmuir equation was more suitable than the Freundlich equation to explain the adsorption equilibrium. The maximum adsorption amount of methylene blue was 161.1–731.5 mg/g for fiber samples activated at temperatures ranging from 750 to 950 °C with sample labeled 750SA to 900SA according to the Langmuir equation. The kinetics of methylene blue adsorption by the activated carbon fiber were analyzed using non-linear pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order. Sample 750SA was suitable for the pseudo-first-order and 800SA, 850SA, and 900SA sample were suitable for the pseudo-second-order. Therefore, waste cotton fabric has the potential to be the precursor for activated carbon fiber with excellent adsorption properties.
The facile production of high-purity mesophase pitch has been a long-standing desire in various carbon industries. Recently, polymer additives for mesophase production have attracted much attention because of their convenience and efficiency. We propose polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a strong candidate as an effective additive for mesophase production. The mesophase content and structural, chemical, and thermal properties of pitches obtained with different amounts of added PVDF are discussed. The influence of PVDF decomposition on mesophase formation is also discussed. We believe that this work provides an effective option for mesophase pitch production.
We report the behaviour of carbon black (CB) nanoparticles (spherical carbon shells), subjected to external pressure, using diamond anvil cell at synchrotron facility. CB nanoparticles have been synthesized by lamp black method using olive oil as combustion precursor and ferrocene as an organometallic additive. The catalyst-assisted CB has an iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) core and amorphous carbon shell (i.e. core–shell structure). Our present study suggests that the carbon shells are partially transparent to the applied high pressure, and result in the reduction of effective pressure that gets transferred to the iron oxide core. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy results indicate that the surrounding carbon shells get compressed with pressure and this change is reversible. However, no structural transformation was observed till the highest applied pressure (25 GPa). The Raman spectroscopy results also suggests that the carbon shells are less pressure sensitive as their pressure coefficients (dω/dP) of G-peak were calculated (3.79 cm− 1/GPa) to be less than that for other carbon allotropes.
CNTs/Al-Li composite was first prepared by hot-pressed sintering from Al-Li alloy powder and CNTs solution, and then the hot compression tests were performed on MMS-100 thermal simulator at strain rate range of 0.01– 10 s− 1, deformation temperature range of 350–500 °C, and total deformation amount of 60%. True stress–strain curves were plotted, and constitutive equation as well as hot processing maps were successfully confirmed based on Arrhenius constitutive model and Prasad instability criterion. Results show that CNTs/Al-Li composite have a very poor hot deformation ability and narrow processing region, which is strain rate range of 0.1–1 s− 1 and deformation temperature range of 360–400 °C. Hot extrusion experiment was carried out and the processing parameters were selected according to the established hot processing map, and an improvement on strength and a good balance between strength and plasticity can be obtained, which is about 650 MPa for tensile strength and 9% for elongation.
The ZnO–Na2Ti6O13 composites were synthesized by facile solution combustion method with different molar concentrations of sodium titanate which is prepared by hydrothermal route. The formation of the composites was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) results revealed that the synthesized composites exhibit porous morphology, whereas the pristine Na2Ti6O13 nanoparticles have whisker like morphology. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) studies were utilized to compute the bandgap and the presence of defects in the composites respectively. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO–Na2Ti6O13 catalyst was investigated through the degradation of 4-nitrophenol under solar light over a period of 180 min and the composite with 0.05 M of Na2Ti6O13 showed higher degradation efficiency (96%) than the other concentrations of Na2Ti6O13 and pristine ZnO. The reduced bandgap, high charge transfer, more oxygen vacancies and the production of high superoxide anion radicals have profound effect on the higher photocatalytic efficiency of the composite with 0.05 of M Na2Ti6O13.
High-temperature friction performances of graphite blocks (GBs) and zinc phosphate impregnated graphite blocks (IGBs) were evaluated under various friction temperatures. The surface of IGB exhibited extremely lower average friction coefficient values, that was 0.007 at 400 °C and 0.008 at 450 °C, in comparison to that of GB (0.13 at 400 °C and 0.16 at 450 °C, respectively). The worn surface of IGB in the high-temperature friction test was smoother and more complete than that of GB. The wear under high temperature and load caused the transformation of zinc pyrophosphate to zinc metaphosphate and the formation of a continuous large-area boundary lubrication layer combined with graphite and metallic element on the wear surface. The superior tribology property of IGB could be attributed to the digestion of iron oxides by tribo-chemical reactions and passivation of the exposed dangling covalent bonds. Specifically, the layered structure generated on the IGB wear interface effectively decreased the adhesive forces and prevented the surface from serious damage.