Isotropic pitch based carbon fibers were exposed to isothermal oxidation in carbon dioxide gas to study the activation kinetics under the temperature of 800~1100℃. The kinetic equation f=1--(-atb) was introduced and the constant b was obtained in the range of 0.92~1.25. It was shown that the activated carbon fiber shows the highly specific surface area (SSA) when the constant b comes close to 1. The activation kinetics were evaluated by the reaction-controlling regime (RCR) according to changes of the apparent activation energy with changes of the conversion. It was observed that the activation energies increase from 47.6 to 51.2 kcal/mole with the conversion increasing from 0.2 to 0.8. It was found that the pores of the activated carbon fiber under the chemical reaction were developed well through the fiber.
The study of mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of carbon/carbon composites is significant to its application and development. These are dependent on microstructure and properties of reinforcing fibers and matrix, fiber/matrix interface and porosity/cracks present in the composites. In the present studies high-density carbon/carbon composites have been prepared using PAN and various pitch based carbon fibers as reinforcements and pitch as matrix with repeated densification cycles using high-pressure impregnation and carbonization technique. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to study the fracture behaviour of the highly dense composites and correlated with structure of the composites. The geometry of reinforcement and presence of unfilled voids/cracks was found to influence the path of crack propagation and thereby the strength of composites. The type of stresses (tensile or compressive) accumulated also plays an important role in fracture of composites.
Sixteen clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits of either sex were divided into two equal groups I and II of 8 animals each. Under thiopental sodium (2.5%) anaesthesia a linear full thickness abdominal wall defect of 3 cm in length was created and repaired with continuous suture pattern using 3000 filaments of carbon fibres and 1~0 black braided nylon suture, ingroup I and II respectively. Increased vascularity was observed in carbon fibres (group I) and on day 30 the carbon fibres were covered by white fibrous tissue. Significantly higher (P < 0.05) values of glucose was seen on day 14 in group I, whereas, decrease in glucose value was observed in group II. Histopathologically, the carbon fiber implant induced extensive fibrous tissue (collagen fiber) reaction. Negligible inflammatory cells in the stroma indicate the host tissue tolerance to carbon fibers. Histochemically, gradually increased alkaline phosphatase activity up to day 14 in group I, suggested the proliferation of fibroblasts in early stages.
The electrosorption of U(VI) from waste water was carried out by using an activated carbon fiber (ACF) felt electrode in a continuous electrosorption cell. In order to enhance the electrosorption capacity at a lower potential, the ACF was electrochemically modified in an acidic and a basic solution. Pore structure and functional groups of the electrochemically modified ACF were examined, and the effects of the modification conditions were studied for the adsorption of U(VI). Specific surface area of all the ACFs was decreased by this modification. The amount of the acidic functional groups decreased with a basic modification, while the amount increased a lot with an acidic modification. The electrosorption capacity of U(VI) decreased on the acid modified electrode due to the shielding effect of the acidic functional groups. The base modified electrode enhanced the capacity due to a reduction of the acidic functional groups. The electrosorption amount of U(VI) on the base modified electrode at .0.3 V corresponds to that of the as-received ACF electrode at .0.9 V. Such a good adsorption capacity was due to a reduction of the shielding effect and an increase of the hydroxyl ions in the electric double layer on the ACF surface by the application of negative potential.
The carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized through the catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons in a quartz tube reactor. The CNFs prepared from C3H8 at 550℃ was selected as the purification sample due to the higher content of impurity than that prepared from other conditions. In this study, we carried out the purification of CNFs by oxidation in air or carbon dioxide after acid treatment, and investigated the influence of purification parameters such as kind of acid, concentration, oxidation time, and oxidation temperature on the structure of CNFs. The metal catalysts could be easily eliminated from the prepared CNFs by liquid phase purification with various acids and it was verified by ICP analysis, in which, for example, Ni content decreased from 2.51% to 0.18% with 8% nitric acid. However, the particulate carbon and heterogeneous fibers were not removed from the prepared CNFs by thermal oxidation in air and carbon dioxide. This result can be explained by that the direction of graphene sheet in CNFs is vertical to the fiber axis and the CNFs are oxidized at about the similar rate with the impurity carbon.
Plasma carbon blacks of 20~30 nm diameter were synthesized by direct decomposition of natural gas using a hybrid plasma torch system with 50 kW direct current and 4 MHz of radio frequency. The insulating rector which inside diameter of 400 mm and length of 1500 mm, respectively was kept at 300~400℃ during the preparation. The ultimate analysis of plasma carbon blacks reveals that the raw plasma carbon blacks contains a large quantity of volatile which is mainly consist of hydrogen. Therefore devolatilization of raw plasma carbon blacks were carried out at 900℃ for one hour under nitrogen atmosphere. The devolatilization leads to the decrease in electrical resistivity and surface oxygen functional groups of plasma carbon black significantly. In order to investigate the plasma carbon as a catalyst support, devolatilized plasma black at 900℃ (DPB) supported PtAu catalyst was synthesized by sodium boronhydride reduction method. Electrochemical measurements and direct formic acid fuel cell test indicated that catalytic activity of DPB supported PtAu catalyst for formic acid oxidation was similar to that of Vulcan XC-72 of commercial carbon black supported one.