We prepared polycarbonate (PC)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites by co-rotating twin screw extruder at 533 K. Thermal analysis results indicate that the miscibility of PC and PMMA is enhanced by MWCNTs. Bead necklace-like morphology of PMMA-rich phase is observed in PC/PMMA/MWCNT nanocomposites with increasing PMMA weight fraction due to the bead necklace-like morphology. The tensile strength of PC/PMMA (75/25)/MWCNT (1 wt.%) nanocomposite is 3% higher than those of PC/PMMA (75/25) alloy. Suppression of die swell by MWCNT filler is observed in the melt flow of PC/PMMA/MWCNT nanocomposites during extrusion.
Carbon materials such as graphite and graphene exhibit high electrical conductivity. We examined the electrical conductivity of synthetic and natural graphene powders after the chemical reduction of synthetic and natural graphite oxide from synthetic and natural graphite. The trend of electrical conductivity of both graphene (synthetic and natural) was compared with different graphite materials (synthetic, natural, and expanded) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under compression from 0.3 to 60 MPa. We found that synthetic graphene showed a marked increment in electrical conductivity compared to natural graphene. Interestingly, the total increment in electrical conductivity was greater for denser graphite; however, an opposite behavior was observed in nanocarbon materials such as graphene and CNTs, probably due to the differing layer arrangement of nanocarbon materials.
Dispersion of the functionalized multiwalled nanotubes (MWNT) in the polyurethane (PU) matrix and DC conductivity of the MWNT/PU composites are investigated with the oxidation conditions, the kind of surfactants and their content. First, the most optimal surfactant type and its critical micelle concentration in the MWNT suspension are determined as a cationic surfactant, benzalkonium chloride (BKC) of 0.6 wt.% to the MWNT content from DEA and FESEM results. All the MWNT oxidized under several conditions are negatively charged and functionalized with carboxylic group, whereas the degree of damage is different from oxidation conditions. In addition, each MWNT/PU composite derived from several oxidation conditions shows different DC conductivity at a characteristic MWNT content. It is found that in order to enhance DC conductivity of the polymeric composites containing the oxidized MWNT the better dispersion of MWNT should be obtained by effective functionalities and surfactant adsorption with preserving the intrinsic geometry of pristine MWNT.
In this work, the effect of aminized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NH-MWNTs) on the mechanical interfacial properties of epoxy nanocomposites was investigated by means of fracture toughness, critical stress intensity factor (KIC), and impact strength testing, and their morphology was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the incorporation of amine groups onto MWNTs was confirmed by the FT-IR and Raman spectra. The mechanical interfacial properties of the epoxy nanocomposites were remarkably improved with increasing the NH-MWNT content. It was probably attributed to the strong physical interaction between amine groups of NH-MWNTs and epoxide groups of epoxy resins. The SEM micrographs showed that NH-MWNTs were uniformly embed and bonded with epoxy resins, resulted in the prevention of the deformation and crack propagation in the NH-MWNTs/epoxy nanocomposites.
We prepared the amine epoxy adducts (AEA)/thin multiwalled carbon nanotubes (TWCNTs) composite particles using nonsolvent based methods including dry mechano-chemical bonding(MCB) process and supercritical fluid (SCF) process. The resulting TWCNTs/AEA composite particles have been used as curing agents for urethane modified bispheol A type epoxy resin. The thermal, thermomechanical properties of the epoxy resins cured with TWCNTs/AEA composite particles were measured by DMA and the dispersion of CNT was characterized by SEM. Because of high degree of CNT dispersion, thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy resin cured with TWCNTs/AEA composite particles prepared by SCF process are better than those cured with mechano-chemically prepared TWCNTs/AEA composite particles.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of simultaneous removal of ammonium, nitrate and phosphorus in water using the zeocarbon. In this study, the surface of zeocarbon was modified by acid because of difficulty in application of water treatment. After surface modification, the strength was enhanced about 62% higher than that of original one. The removal efficiency of ammonium and nitrate using the modified zeocarbon was about 47% and 32%, respectively and were higher than that of zeocarbon. In batch type experiment on the simultaneous removal of ammonium, nitrate and phosphorus, the presence of phosphorus did not have influence on nitrogen removal efficiency. Concomitantly, removal efficiency of phosphorus was obtained was about 35%. This indicates that the surface modified zeocarbon can be applied for simultaneous removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. Consequently, our results could be used as basic data to design of one-stage nitrogen/phosphorus simultaneous removal system.
The composites of alginate, carbon nanotube, and iron(III) oxide were prepared for the removal of heavy metal in aqueous pollutant. Both alginate and carbon nanotube were used as an adsorbent material and iron oxide was introduced for the easy recovery after removal of heavy metal to eliminate the secondary pollution. The morphology of composites was investigated by FE-SEM showing the carbon nanotubes coated with alginate and the iron oxide dispersed in the alginate matrix. The ferromagnetic properties of composites were shown by including iron(III) oxide additive. The copper ion removal was investigated with ICP AES. The copper ion removal efficiency increased greatly over 60% by using alginate-carbon nanotube composites.
The alginate-based hydrogel was prepared as a pH-sensitive drug delivery system. To enhance the drug loading capacity, activated carbon was introduced as a drug absorbent. The iron oxide was incorporated into the alginate matrix for the magnetic transferring to the target organ. The activated carbon and iron-oxide were dispersed uniformly in the alginate hydrogel. The drug release from the alginate/activated carbon composite hydrogel was carried out in various pH conditions with vitamin B12 and Lactobacillus lamnosers as model drugs. The fast and sustainable release of drug was observed in the basic condition due to the pH-sensitive solubility of alginate. The novel drug delivery system having pH-sensitive release property and magnetic movement to target place was developed by using the alginate/activated carbon composite magnetic hydrogels.
Boron doped fullerene C60 (B:C60) films were prepared by the thermal evaporation of C60 powder using argon plasma treatment. The morphology and structural characteristics of the thin films were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrochemical application of the boron doped fullerene film as a coating layer for silicon anodes in lithium ion batteries was also investigated. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements were applied to the B:C60 coated silicon electrodes at a scan rate of 0.05 mVs-1. The CV results show that the B:C60 coating layer act as a passivation layer with respect to the insertion and extraction of lithium ions into the silicon film electrode.
Propellant waste was impregnated on the surface of activated carbon fiber and heat-treated at different temperature to introduce newly developed functional groups on the ACF surface. Functional groups of nitrogen and oxygen such as pyridine, pyridone, pyrrol, lacton and carboxyl were newly introduced on the surface of modified activated carbon fiber. The porosity, specific surface area, and morphology of those modified ACFs were changed as increasing the heat-treated temperature from 200 to 500℃. The optimum heat-treatment temperature was suggested to 500℃, because lower temperature given rise to the decrease of specific surface area and higher temperature resulted in the decrease of weight loss. Propellant waste can be used as an useful surface modifier to porous carbons.