The activated carbon "C" was obtained by carbonization followed by activation with steam at 40% of burn-off. Oxidized carbons C-N, C-P and C-H were obtained by oxidizing the activated carbon C with concentrated nitric acid, ammonium peroxysulfate and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The textural properties of the carbons were determined from nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. The acidic surface functional groups were determined by pH titration, base neutralization capacity and electrophoretic mobility measurements. The cation exchange capacities of un-oxidized and oxidized carbons were determined by the removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) from their aqueous solutions. The surface area and the total pore volume decreased but the pore radius increased by the treatment of activated carbon with oxidizing agents. These changes were more pronounced in case of oxidation with HNO3. The surface pH of un-oxidized carbon was basic whereas those of the oxidized derivative were acidic. The removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) was pH dependent and the maximum removal of the both ions was obtained at pH of 5-6. Cu(II) was more adsorbed, a phenomenon which was ascribed to its particular electronic configuration.
Activated carbons were obtained by activating wild cherry stones with different concentrations of phosphoric acid or zinc chloride at different temperatures. The adsorption of N2 at 77 K and of CO2 at 273 K was followed and the data were analyzes by considering different adsorption models. The activated carbons obtained measured high surface area with the most of the surface in all samples located in micropores. Fair agreement was found between the nitrogen surface areas calculated from the BET-, t-, α- and DR- methods, although the first three are based on surface coverage whereas the latter is based on micropore filling. The carbon dioxide surface areas calculated by the DA equation were smaller than the comparable nitrogen areas. This was ascribed to domination of surface coverage mechanism, the absence of activated diffusion process. Based on this explanation the CO2-surface areas as calculated by DA equation should be taken with great reservation.
Three point bending tests of single edge notched beam (SENB) specimens were carried out to evaluate the fracture behavior of the fine-grain isotropic nuclear grade graphite, IG-11. To measure the crack initiation point and the subsequent crack growth, the direct current potential drop (DCPD) method and a traveling microscope were used. The effects of test variables like initial crack length, specimen thickness, notch type and loading rate on the measured fracture toughness, KQ, were investigated. Based on the test results, the ranges of the test variables to measure the reliable fracture toughness value were proposed. During the crack growth, the rising R-curve behavior was observed in IG-11 graphite when the superficial crack length measured on the specimen surface was used. The increase of crack growth resistance was discussed in terms of crack bridging, crack meandering, crack branching, microcracking and crack deflection, which increase the surface energy and friction force.
Carbon-ceramic composites were fabricated by using fly ash and PANOX fibers as reinforcement. Fly ash, because of its small size particles e.g. submicron to micron level can be effectively dispersed along with fibrous reinforcements. Phenolic resin was used as carbon precursor. Both dry as well as wet methods were used for forming composites. The resulting composites were characterized for their microstructure, thermal and mechanical properties. The microstructure and mechanical properties of composites are found to be dependent on type of the fly ash, fibrous reinforcements as well as processing parameters. The addition of fly ash improves hardness and the fibers, which get co-carbonized on heat treatment, increase the flexural strength of the carbon-ceramic composites. Composites with dual reinforcement exhibit about 30-40% higher strength as compared to the composites made with single reinforcement, either with fly ash as filler or with chopped fibers.
The objective of this paper is to compare the variation of surface properties by hydrochloric acid pre-treatment and of metallic potassium and their salts loading effect for activated carbon after surfaces transformation by acid. From the results of nitrogen adsorption, each isotherm shows a distinct knee band, which is closely related to the characteristic of microporous carbons with capillary condensation in micropores. In order to present the causes of the differences in surface properties and SBET after the samples were treated with hydrochloric acid, pore structure and surface morphology are investigated by adsorption analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that activated carbons show better performance for metallic potassium and potassium salts by pre-treatment with hydrochloric acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures of potassium/activated carbon particles provide information about the homogeneous distribution of metal or metal complex on the surface. For the chemical composition microanalysis for potassium treatment of the activated carbon pre-treated with hydrochloric acid, samples were analyzed by energy disperse X-ray (EDX). Finally, the type and quality of oxygen groups are determined from the method proposed by Boehm. A positive influence of the acidic groups on the carbon surface by acid treatment is also demonstrated by an increase in the contents of potassium salts with increasing of acidic groups calculated from Boehm titration.