The remarkable electrical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties of graphene and its derivative grapheme oxide have recently gained great importance, along with the large surface area and single-atoms thickness. In this respect, several techniques of synthesis such as chemical exfoliation, mechanical exfoliation, or chemical synthesis have been discovered. However, the development of graphene with fewer defects and on a large scale poses major challenges; therefore, it is increasingly necessary to produce it in large proportions with high quality. This paper reviews the top-down synthesis approach of graphene and its well-known derivative graphene oxide. Furthermore, characterization of graphene oxide nanomaterial is a critical component of the analysis. The characterization techniques employed to determine the quality, defects intensity, number of layers, and structures for graphene oxide nanomaterial at the atomic scale. This article focuses on the different involved characterization methodology for graphene oxide with their percentage utilization for the past 11 years. Additionally, reviewing all of the characterization literature for the last 11 years would be a difficult task. Therefore, the aim is to outline the existing state of graphene oxide by different characterization techniques and provide a comparative analysis based on their percentage utilization.
The carbon-based nanostructures are in limelight due to their widespread applications in nano-to-micro-scale technologies. The carbon dots are known for their unique physical, electrical, optical, chemical and biological properties. The carbon dots (CDs) are being produced through several well-developed synthesis methods, one of which is the green sonochemical. This method is preferred over others because it is a green source of energy, facile, fast, low-temperature process, non-toxic and less expensive. Despite the fact of using 90% less energy than other methods, this method has been overlooked in the published literature. It is possible to prepare pure and doped CDs of low toxicity and controlled physicochemical properties through sonochemical method. In recent years, sonochemically produced CDs have been tuned and characterized for a variety of applications. This review has explored the merits and demerits of sonochemical method in comparison to the other methods for the synthesis of pure CDs and their nanocomposites. The role of multiple factors in tailoring the specific parameters of CDs for their application in antibacterial, polymerization, tissue engineering, catalysis, bio-imagining, supercapacitors, drug delivery and electric devices is also elaborated in this review. This review also concludes on future directions in the applications of sonochemically produced CDs.
The mercury ion ( Hg2+) is regarded as one of the toxic cations that is extremely harmful and dangerous to human health and the environment. With this growing awareness, it is imperative that facile and rapid sensing systems developed for the detection of Hg2+. Due to excellent sensitivity and selectivity, graphene quantum dots (GQDs), a zero-dimensional carbon nanomaterial, are attracting the attention of researchers as promising candidates as fluorescent probes for Hg2+ detection. This study aimed at conducting an in-depth review of recent advances into GQD-based materials as fluorescent probes in Hg2+ sensing. This systematic review was carried out by covering three main databases, namely, Scopus and Science Direct as the dominant databases, followed by Google Scholar as the supporting database. GQD-based materials encompassing bare GQDs, N-GQDs, B, N-GQDs, N, S-GQDs, N, K-GQDs, RhB-GQDs, Cys-GQDs, PEHA-GQD-DPA, Gly-GQDs, Mn(II)-NGQDs, NH2– Ru@ SiO2- NGQDs and FA-GQDs were discussed thoroughly with regard to their synthesis strategies, along with their potential application in the detection of Hg2+. The doping of heteroatoms is envisaged to enhance the quantum yield and selectivity of bare GQDs. This review might unlock a wide range of opportunities for the application of various GQD-based materials as an adaptable, feasible and scalable approach to the detection of Hg2+.
Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) as a rising class of carbon family have gained widespread attention in view of their multiple properties such as great photoluminescence (PL) properties, facile synthesis route, needing economical and cheap raw material, high physiochemical stability, and simple functionalization. This makes CQDs highly versatile and with potential for different applications. To date, CQDs-enabled photocatalysts are regarded as one of the most efficient technologies to degrade pollutants in water; however, poor activity under visible light and the recombination of photogenerated electron and hole pairs hinder getting an ideal performance that may be applied on a large scale. Conventional techniques have been modified via a new advanced method. In this review, we highlighted the strategies to improve the activity of conventional semiconductor photocatalysis via coupling with CQDs, and strategies to improve the photocatalytic activity such as functionalization, doping, and Z-scheme heterojunctions were discussed in detail. This review also covered the CQDs heterojunction application in pollutant degradation and discussed several examples with high-performance photocatalytic activity.
The pore structure of pitch-based activated carbon prepared by physical activation was improved by nitric acid treatment of pitch. The nitric acid treatment introduced oxygen and nitrogen functional groups on pitch, and increased pitch molecular weight by cross-linking. The introduced oxygen and nitrogen functional groups on pitch were removed during the carbonization process, so they did not directly affect the physical activation process. The increased pitch molecular weight induced an increase of the pitch softening point. The increased softening point prevented rearrangement between the pitch molecules during the carbonization process, thereby inhibiting the orientation improvement of pitch molecules. The crystal degree of the carbonized pitch was reduced due to the inhibition of the orientation improvement. The reduced crystal degree increased reactivity between carbonized pitch and activation agent ( CO2) and formed micropores, so that activated carbon with a high specific surface area could be prepared.
This work using first-principles theory proposed PdN3- doped CNT ( PdN3-CNT) as a potential gas sensor for detection of NO, NO2 and O3 in the air insulated equipment, to evaluate its operation status. Results indicate that the PdN3- CNT behaves chemisorption upon three gas species, with adsorption energy (Ead) of − 2.15, − 1.91 and − 1.96 eV, and charge-transfer (QT) of − 0.141, − 0.325 and − 0.419 e, respectively. The band structure (BS) and density of state (DOS) analysis reveal that the gas adsorptions cause remarkable deformations in the electronic property of the PdN3- CNT, leading to the increase of the bandgap for the gas adsorbed systems and verifying the strong binding force of the bonded atoms from the orbital DOS. Combined with the results by frontier molecular orbital theory, we presume that PdN3- CNT is a promising sensing material to be explored as a resistance-type gas sensor for detection of NOx with higher electrical response upon NO. It is our hope that our theoretical assumption could be further studied and realized in the following experiential research, which would be meaningful to propose novel sensing candidate in the field of electrical engineering to guarantee the safe operation of the air insulation equipment.
An extract of fresh guava leaves (Psidium guajava) was used as a green carbon precursor to fabricate blue fluorescent carbon quantum dots (GCQDs) by hydrothermal process. The GCQDs show bright blue fluorescence emission under UV light with an excitation wavelength of 350 nm and emission at 450 nm. The physical structure of GCQDs was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). GCQDs 80 μg inhibited the growth of waterborne pathogens Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. We also investigated the catalytic activity of the GCQDs on the removal of two azo dyes, namely Congo red and bromophenol blue, with and without NaBH4. The GCQDs showed an excellent reduction of color intensity of both dyes without NaBH4 within 30 min of treatment.
Fluorescent nanostructures based on carbon, or carbon dots, are attracting much attention and interest because of their diverse properties which can be applied in several fields of knowledge, such as optics, biomedicine, environmental research, among others. Such properties are in part, derived from its intrinsic luminescence from tunable functional groups. In this work, we produced carbon nanodots (CND) using agro-industrial residues, such as Lolium perenne and malt bagasse. The methods used were conventional hydrothermal syntheses and microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that carbon dots synthesized from this ryegrass type are reported. The synthesis methods were one step (no catalyst, base, or acid were added for passivation), and the functional groups responsible for the luminescence and high solubility in water were identified by infrared spectroscopy, being mainly C=O, C–OH, C–N, and N–H. According to our theoretical studies, the C=O group introduced a new energy level for electronic transitions that can affect the emission properties. Fluorescence images of osteoblasts using CNDs were acquired and their chelating property towards Pb2+ and Cr6+ detection was tested.
To improve the pyrolytic carbon (PyC) deposition rate of Carbon/Carbon (C/C) composites prepared by the traditional chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) method, the 3D Ni/wood-carbon (3D Ni/C) catalyst was introduced into the CVI process. The effects of catalyst on the density of C/C composites were studied, and the deposition rate and morphologies of PyC were investigated after catalytic CVI. The morphologies of catalyst and PyC were characterized by scanning electron microscope and polarized light microscopy. The catalytic deposition mechanism of PyC was studied by density functional theory. The experimental results show that the initial carbon deposition efficiency of the catalytic pyrolysis process was 3–4 times that of the noncatalytic process. The catalyst reduced the energy barrier in the first step of deposition reaction from 382.55 to 171.67 kJ/mol according to simulation results. The pyrolysis reaction energy with Ni catalyst is reduced by 54% than that without the catalyst.
The production of macroalgae-derived adsorbent is of great importance to realize the idea of treating pollutants with invaluable renewable materials. Herein, a novel meso-micro porous nano-activated carbon was prepared from green alga Ulava lactuca in a facile way via chemical activation with zinc chloride. The resultant activated carbon possesses a significant specific surface area 1486.3 m2/ g. The resulting activated carbon was characterized and investigated for the adsorption of Direct Red 23 (DR23) dye from an aqueous environment. Batch method was conducted to study the effects of different adsorption processes on the DR23 dye adsorption from water. Isotherms and kinetics models were investigated for the adsorption process of DR23 dye. It was found that the adsorption data were well fitted by Langmuir model showing a monolayer adsorption capacity 149.26 mg/g. Kinetic experiments revealed that the adsorptions of DR23 dye can be described with pseudo-secondorder model showing a good correlation (R2 > 0.997). The prepared activated carbon from Ulava lactuca was exposed to a total of six regeneration experiments. The regeneration result proved that the fabricated activated carbon only loses 19% of its adsorption capacity after six cycles. These results clearly demonstrated the high ability of the obtained active carbon to absorb anionic dyes from the aqueous environment.
Activated carbon (AC) injection has been regarded as one of the most effective control technologies for Hg0 removal in flue gas. It is worthwhile to explore new and simple preparation methods for AC with low cost and high Hg removal capacity. In this study, a biomass based AC was successfully prepared from levant cotton exocarp using ZnCl2 activation. The mercury adsorption efficiency and mechanism were studied via the fixed bed experiments. Activator, reaction temperature and components of simulated coal-fired flue gas were investigated. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM–EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied for morphology characterization of the prepared AC and discussion of the possible adsorption mechanism. The adsorbed mercury species and the physiochemical properties of prepared AC were discussed. The results showed that (1) Hg0 removal efficiency could reach up to 90% at 150 ℃ under simulated flue gas (SFG); (2) Hg0 adsorption was controlled by the combination of physical and chemical mechanisms.
Herein, a new and generic strategy has been proposed to introduce uniformly distributed graphitic carbon into the nanostructured metal oxide. A facile and generic synthetic protocol has been proposed to introduce uniformly distributed conducting graphitic carbon into the Co3O4 nanoparticles ( Co3O4 NPs@graphitic carbon). The prepared Co3O4 NPs@graphitic carbon has been drop casted onto the portable screen-printed electrode (SPE) to realize its potential application in the individual and simultaneous quantification of toxic Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions present in aqueous solution. The proposed Co3O4 NPs@graphitic carbon-based electrochemical sensor exhibits a wide linear range from 0 to 120 ppb with limit of detection of 3.2 and 3.5 ppb towards the simultaneous detection of Pb(II) and Cd(II), which falls well below threshold limit prescribed by WHO.
Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) has become a promising thin film for many fields of applications due to its unique and tunable properties. However, low optical bandgap and thermal stability limits its application in many fields particularly as antireflection coating on solar cell. In the present study, the DLN thin film has been deposited using a mixed liquid precursor by rf-PECVD process. Surprisingly the presence of nc-C60 in FCC structure in DLN matrix has been observed. The degree of crystallinity and diameter of C60 have been increased significantly after annealed at 850 °C. The film has been annealed at 850 °C to primarily investigate its feasibility as antireflection coating (ARC) in compatible with industrial solar cell fabrication process. The refractive index and optical bandgap of the film were around 1.80 and 4.10 eV, respectively. Moreover, the optical bandgap has decreased to some extent to 3.92 eV even after annealing at such high temperature. The high SiOx at% and embedded nc-C60 enhanced the optical transparency and thermal stability of the DLN film. The solar-weighted average reflection of DLN-coated textured silicon was reduced significantly to 1.91%. The C60 embedded DLN film has a great potential to apply in different optoelectronic devices especially in solar cell as ARC.
The current study was intended to synthesize and characterize the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of carbon/ carbon (C/C) composites using the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process. To that end, carbon fiber felt (CF) was used as a preform, and methane and hydrogen were employed as reactive and carrier gases, respectively. After deciding on the optimum temperature (1050 °C), the composite samples were produced at different times (0–195 h). Then the samples were studied for their phase and microstructure characteristics using XRD, SEM, FESEM, FTIR, and Raman spectroscope. The results showed that by increasing the CVI process time up to 195 h, the density of the produced samples increased from 0.20 to 1.62 g/cm3, and the specific surface area decreased from 58.78 to 0.23 m2/ g. Also, by increasing the process duration, the deposition rate decreased due to the reduction of the available surface for carbon deposition. In other words, due to the increase in density, and decrease in both porosity and specific surface area, the thermal conductivity coefficient and the bending strength of the samples increased. The composite specimens’ SEM images of the fracture surface indicated a weak interface between the carbon fibers and the carbon layer developed by the CVI process. The structural analyses showed that the morphology of carbon growth during the CVI process was initially laminar, but changed to rough-laminar (RL) with the higher duration of the CVI process.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added into the self-healing polyurethane materials as conductive filler, the mass fraction of carbon nanotubes was adjusted, and 1% polyaniline was doped. The conductive self-healing polyurethane composites with different carbon nanotubes content (PU)-1/3/5/8/10 were prepared, and analyzed and tested. The result shows that the permeability threshold value of the composite material is 8wt%, and the comprehensive performance of the composite material PU-8 is the best; the resistance of PU-8 is 1278Ω, PU-8P has a resistance of 1400Ω; using an infrared camera, it can be seen that the material can reach 143.3 °C under the DC current of 0.1A, reaching the temperature condition when the material is repaired; the swelling test shows that the PU-8P equilibrium swelling rate is 177%, the gel content is 52.67%, and there is no dissolution in dimethyl sulfoxide. Solvent stability is better than PU-8;DSC test shows that the glass transition temperature of the soft segment of PU-8P is 43 °C, and the glass transition temperature of the hard segment is − 55 °C, which is not much different from that of PU-8; TG test shows that the epitaxial starting temperature of PU-8P is 365 °C; the observation photo is magnified by a stereo microscope at ten times and the PU-8P sample is cut of in the middle at room temperature, applying a constant voltage of 30 V, the cracks disappeared. The material cracks realized self-healing with electricity, and the repair efficiency reached 20.5%.
Sugarcane bagasse has been used as a substrate for the development of microporous nano-activated carbons for the treatment and elimination of dissolved materials from aquatic environment. The activated carbon was produced using chemical activation in one-step method with zinc chloride ( ZnCl2) as the activating agent at a carbonization temperatures range from 500 to 900 °C. The effects of temperature and time of carbonization on the activated carbon product properties were thoroughly studied. The activated carbons that resulted were characterized using the N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method (BET), pore property analysis, micropore (MP) surface area, t-plot surface area, TGA, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and EDX analyses. The prepared activated carbon’s point of zero charge, Boehm titration process, iodine removal percentage, and methylene blue number were also investigated. The prepared activated carbon’s maximum surface area was achieved using a 2/1 impregnation ratio (dried sugarcane bagasse/ZnCl2) at 600 °C temperature of carbonization and 60 min residence time. 1402.2 m2/ g, 0.6214 and 1.41 cm3/ g, respectively, were the largest surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume. As the activation temperature increased, the total pore volume increased and the BET study measured a pore diameter of 0.7 nm and a mean pore diameter of 1.77 nm.
High-performance carbon materials were prepared via a one-step molten salt carbonization of tobacco waste used as electrode materials for supercapacitors. Carbon material prepared by carbonization for 3 h in molten CaCl2 at 850 °C exhibits hierarchically porous structure and ideal capacitive behavior. In a three-electrode configuration with 1 mol L− 1 H2SO4 aqueous solution, it delivers specific capacitance of 196.5 F g− 1 at 0.2 A g− 1, energy density of 27.2 Wh kg− 1 at 0.2 A g− 1, power density of 983.5 W kg− 1 at 2 A g− 1, and excellent cyclic stability with 94% capacitance retention after 5000 charge–discharge cycles at 1 A g− 1. Moreover, in a symmetrical two-electrode configuration with 6 mol L− 1 KOH aqueous solution, it delivers specific capacitance of 111.1 F g− 1 at 0.2 A g− 1, energy density of 3.8 Wh kg− 1 at 0.2 A g− 1, and power density of 482.0 W kg− 1 at 2 A g− 1. The relationship between hierarchically porous structure and capacitive performance is also discussed.
Lithium-ion battery (LiB) is one of the special issues on nowadays and diverse researches to develop LiB with better performances have been carried out so far, especially, regarding improved properties of each component such as cathode, anode, separator and electrolyte. However, there are limited information on ‘processing’ to prepare each component, and especially fabrication of cathode is strongly dependent on thinky mixer to realize homogeneous dispersion of active materials and conductors in binders. Herein, we report on preparation of LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 (NCM811) based cathode materials with different carbon conductors (CNT and carbon black) using homogenizer and three-roll milling method. These processes are turned out perfect alternative to prepare cathode electrode. LiB cells were assembled using the dispersed electrode slurry and the performance of a cell was electrochemically stable, even in the case of a CNT conductor, which is normally difficult to make perfect dispersion because of its strong Van der Waals attraction between the tubes and π–π interactions.
We have prepared MIL-101/graphene oxide (GO) composites with various mixing molar ratio of Fe-containing metal– organic frameworks (MOFs) against GO. When synthesizing MOFs, it was possible to synthesize uniform crystal powders using hydrothermal method. MIL-101 consists of a terephthalic acid (TPA) ligand, with the central metal composed of Fe, which was the working electrode material for supercapacitors. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis had been done to ascertain microstructures and morphologies of the composites. Cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements were performed to analyze the electrochemical properties of the composite electrodes in 6 M KOH electrolyte. By controlling the metal ligand mole ratio against GO, we prepared a changed MOF structure and a different composite morphology, which could be studied as one of the promising optimized electrode materials for supercapacitors.
In this work, the sulfonic acid group was introduced into the resorcinol–formaldehyde (RF) microspheres by the addition of p-phenolsulfonic acid during the polycondensation process of RF. The hydrophilicity of the sulfonated RF allowed KOH to infiltrate inside the microspheres, which enhanced the formation of mesopores in the carbon microspheres during the activation process by KOH. SEM and TEM observations and N2 adsorption measurements verified the formation of abundant mesopores in the porous carbon microspheres. The BET surface area of these mesoporous carbons exceeded 2000 m2/ g. In 17 m NaClO4 “water-in-salt” (WIS) electrolyte-based supercapacitor, the synthesized mesoporous carbon exhibited high specific capacitance of 170 F/g at current density of 0.5 A/g, comparable to those in regular KOH electrolyte. When graphite was used as current collectors, the symmetric cell could operate at 2.5 V, and the mesoporous carbon exhibited an energy density of 43 Wh/kg at power density of 0.25 kW/kg, and 25 Wh/kg at power density of 6.25 kW/kg, respectively, which were superior to those using Pt or stainless steel as current collectors. The mesoporous carbon/graphite was an excellent electrode in new-generation “WIS” electrolyte-based high-voltage supercapacitor due to their high energy and power density.