The study describes the results of batch experiments on the removal of Reactive Yellow 15 (RY15) and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) from synthetic textile wastewater onto Activated Carbon from Walnut shell (ACW). The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlish, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models of adsorption. The experiments were carried out as function of initial concentrations, pH, temperature (303-333), adsorbent dose and kinetics. The surface area and pore volumes of adsorbent were measured by BET and BJH methods. The findings confirm the surface area (BET) is 248.99 m2/g. The data fitted well with the Temkin and D-R isotherms for RY15 and RB5, respectively. The most favorable adsorption occurred in acidic pH. Pseudo-second order kinetic model were best in agreement with adsorption of RY15 and RB5 on ACW. The results indicate that walnut shell could be an alternative to more costly adsorbent currently being used for dyes removal.
PAN precursor fibers were produced via wet-spinning process, and effects of polymerization and spinning processes, especially the stretching process, were investigated on mechanical properties and micro-morphologies of precursor fibers. An increase in molecular weight, dope solid and densification and a decrease in surface defects were possible by controlling polymerization temperature, the number of heating rollers for densification and the jet stretch ratio, which improved the mechanical properties of precursor fibers. The curves for strength, modulus, tensile power and diameter as a function of stretch ratio can be divided into three stages: steady change area, little change area and sudden change area. With the increase of stretch ratio, the fiber diameter became smaller, the degree of crystallization increased and the structure of precursor fibers became compact and homogeneous, which resulted in the increase of strength, modulus and tensile power of precursor fibers. Empirical relationship between fiber strength and stretch ratio was studied by using the sub-cluster statistical theory. It was successfully predicted when the strengths were 0.8 GPa and 1.0 GPa under a certain technical condition, the corresponding stretch ratio of the fiber were 11.16 and 12.83 respectively.
Carbon nanotubes are unique tubular structures of nanometer diameter and large length/diameter ratio. The nanotubes may consist of one up to tens and hundreds of concentric shells of carbons with adjacent shells separation of ~0.34 nm. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were synthesized by arc-discharge technique. MWCNTs were formed at the cathode deposit along with other carbonaceous materials like amorphous carbon, graphite etc. However, to get the best advantage of carbon nanotubes in various advanced applications, these undesired carbonaceous materials to be removed which is a challenging task. In the present study, various techniques were tried out for purifying MWCNTs such as physical filtration, chemical treatment and thermal annealing. SEM, FTIR, TGA and BET techniques were used to characterize the CNTs at various stages. Results shows that suitable chemical treatment followed by thermal annealing under controlled flow of oxygen gives the better route for purification of carbon nanotubes.
Common reed (Fragmites australis), a local invasive grass, was investigated as a possible feedstock for the production of activated carbon. Dried crushed stems were subjected to impregnation with phosphoric acid (30, 40 and 50%) followed by pyrolysis at 400~500℃ with final washing and drying. Obtained carbons were characterized by determining: carbon yield, ash content, slurry pH, textural properties and capacity to remove color bodies from factory-grade sugar liquor. Produced carbons possessed surface area up to 700 m2/g, total pore volumes up to 0.37 cm3/g, and proved to be microporous in nature. Decolorization of hot sugar liquor at 80℃ showed degrees of color removal of 60 up to 77% from initial color of 1100~1300 ICU, at a carbon dose of 1.0 g/100 ml liquor. No correlation seems to hold between synthesis conditions and % R but depends on the degree of microporosity. A commercial activated carbon N showed a comparative better color removal capacity of 91%. Common reed proved to be a viable carbon precursor for production of good adsorbing carbon suitable for decolorization in the sugar industry, as well as in other environmental remediation processes.
Activated carbons are well known as adsorbents for gases and vapors. Micro porous carbons are used for the sorption/separation of light gases, whereas, carbon with bigger pore size are applied for removal of large molecules. Therefore, the control of pore size of activated carbon plays a vital role for their use in specific applications. In the present work, steam activation parameters have been varied to control pore size of the resulting activated carbon. It was found that flow rate of steam has profound effect on both surface characteristic and surface morphology. The flow rate of steam was optimized to retain monolith structure as well as higher surface area.
Removal of dyes Reactive Blue 221, N Blue RGB and Acid Blue MTR using two different samples of activated carbon by static batch method was studied. Experimental data on optical density of solutions at different concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L and of solutions after adsorption on activated carbon samples were measured. Calibration curves were plotted and the amount of dye qe adsorbed was calculated. The data was fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for two different carbon samples and different concentration and pH values. Constants were calculated from the slope and intercept values of the isotherms. Coefficient of correlation R2 and Standard Deviation SD were also noted. The data fitted well to the isotherms. Carbon sample C1 showed higher potential to adsorb all the three dyes. Adsorption was higher at lower concentrations. Carbon sample C2 showed better adsorption in acidic pH as compared to in alkaline pH. From the analysis of the data capacity of C1 and C2 to remove the dyes from water have been compared.
Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared by freezingthawing method for the electro-responsive transdermal drug delivery. MWCNTs were used as the functional ingredient to improve both mechanical and electrical properties of MWCNT/PVA nanocomposite hydrogels. The morphology of nanocomposites revealed the uniform distribution of MWCNTs and the good interfacial contact. The compression moduli of hydrogel matrices increased greatly from 40 to 1500 kPa by forming MWCNT/PVA nanocomposites. The swelling ratio of MWCNT/PVA nanocomposites decreased as the content of MWCNTs increased under no electric voltage applied. However, the swelling ratio of MWCNT/PVA nanocomposites increased as the content of MWCNTs increased under electric voltage applied and the applied electric voltage increased. The drug was released in the electro-responsive manner through the skin due to the electro-sensitive swelling characteristics of MWCNT/PVA nanocomposite hydrogels.
Two-types of ionically modified multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNTs) based sensors were developed by radiationinduced graft polymerization using vinyl monomers such as 3-(butyl imidazol)-2-(hydroxyl)propyl methyl methacrylate and 1-[(4-ethenylphenyl)methyl]-3-buthyl-imidazolium chloride with ionic properties, in aqueous solution at room temperature. Subsequently, the tyrosinase-immobilized biosensor was fabricated by a hand-casting of the ionic property-modified MWNTs, tyrosinase, and chitosan solution as a binder onto ITO glass surface. The sensing ranges of the tyrosinase-biosensor for phenol in phosphate buffer solution was in the range of 0.005~0.2 mM. The total phenolic compounds mainly such as caffeine of the tyrosinase-immobilized biosensor for commercial coffee were also determined.
Four activated carbons were produced by two-stage process as followings; semi-carbonization of indigenous biomass waste, i.e. cotton stalks, followed by chemical activation with KOH under various activation temperatures and chemical ratios of KOH to semi-carbonized cotton stalks (CCS). The surface area, total pore volume and average pore diameter were evaluated by N2-adsorption at 77 K. The surface morphology and oxygen functional groups were determined by SEM and FTIR, respectively. Batch equilibrium and kinetic studies were carried out by using a basic dye, methylene blue as a probe molecule to evaluate the adsorption capacity and mechanism over the produced carbons. The obtained activated carbon (CCS-1K800) exhibited highly microporous structure with high surface area of 950 m2/g, total pore volume of 0.423 cm3/g and average pore diameter of 17.8 a. The isotherm data fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm with monolayer adsorption capacity of 222 mg/g for CCS-1K800. The kinetic data obtained at different concentrations were analyzed using a pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion equations. The pseudo-second-order model fitted better for kinetic removal of MB dye. The results indicate that such laboratory carbons could be employed as low cost alternative to commercial carbons in wastewater treatment.