The “Film boiling” Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI) process is a rapid densification one developed in particular for theelaboration of carbon/carbon composite materials. In order to optimize this new thermal gradient process, we have carried outseveral studies, on one hand, about the nature of the complex chemical reactions in a confined medium, and on the other hand,relative to the role of heat and mass transfers inside the preform. We show in this study that the introduction of a permeablesheath around the preform leads to hybrid liquid/gas CVI process which presents the advantages of very high densificationrates associated with a moderate input energy.
Silver nitrate (AgNO3) powder was mixed into a reformed pitch precursor. Then, the silver-containing pitch was melt spun to form round and "C" shape fibers. A wire mesh was inserted prior to the nozzle to improve the spinnability of the silvercontaining precursor pitch. Silver particles in the carbon fibers (CFs) were detected by XRD and TEM. These tests showed that silver particles were uniformly distributed and the total amount of silver remained constant during stabilization and carbonization. Next, the silver-containing CFs were activated by steam diluted in nitrogen gas. Silver particles accelerated the activation rate, but the specific surface areas of the silver-containing ACFs were similar to those of non-silver containing ACFs at the same burn-off levels. The specific surface area of the C-shaped activated carbon fibers was larger than that of the round activated carbon fibers. The likely reason is that the surface area of a C-shaped CF is about two times larger than that of a round CF when equivalent cross-sectional areas are compared. A small amount of silver particles in the periphery of the CFs was removed during the activation, but the remainder of silver was stayed within the ACFs.
It is well established that halogenated fullerene derivatives act as synthetic intermediates for further substitution viareplacement with nucleophlies. In the present work, systematic studies were carried out on the synthesis of bromofullerenesunder different experimental conditions. The effect of reaction time on the product formed was observed. We observed theformation of new compound of bromofullerenes in a different stoichiometric ratio i.e., C60Br14; in addition to previousreported bromofullerenes in the stoichiometric ratio of C60Br6, C60Br8, and C60Br24. The new derivative of bromofullerene wasisolated and well characterized by various analytical techniques like FT-IR, TGA, DSC, and elemental analysis. In this paper,detail of the synthesis and characterization of the bromofullerene prepared are described. The yields obtained were better thanthose reported previously.
The role of KOH in the one-stage KOH-activation of rice straws was studied using FTIR, XPS, TGA, and DTG techniques.It was found that at the impregnation, KOH extracts to some extent the lignin component from rice straw and reacts withhydroxyl groups. On heat-treatment, the impregnated KOH facilitates intermolecular condensation reaction on one hand butretards the thermal degradation of cellulose molecules on the other hand. The oxygen-containing surface functional groupsnewly created by oxidation of KOH may facilitate the bulk, not controlled, consumption of carbon atoms so that the effectiveporosities may not be able to be developed by the one-stage activation process.
Two types of carbon fiber based high modulus- and isotropic-pitch were exposed to isothermal oxidation in air and CO2 gas and the weight change was measured by TGA apparatus. The kinetic equation was introduced f=1--(-atb) and the constant b was obtained in the range of 1.02~1.68 for the isotropic fiber and obtained 0.91~1.93 for the high modulus fiber respectively. In considering the effect of the atmosphere for isothermal oxidation, the value of the constant b obtained in the carbon dioxide was higher than that obtained in the air. Therefore, it was found that the pitch based carbon fiber shows sigmoidal characteristic when it is oxidized in the carbon dioxide. In addition, it was also found that kf = 0.5, which was reaction constant at f = 0.5, was a very useful parameter for evaluation of the oxidation reactivity of pitch based carbon fibers. According to the consideration, it is suggested that the conversion-time curves of the pitch based carbon fibers are correlated by normalized equation f=1--(-AτB), where τ=t/tf= 0.5.