Activated carbon was synthesized from coconut shells. The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface area of the synthesized activated carbon was found to be 1640 m2/g with a pore volume of 1.032 cm3/g. The average pore diameter of the activated carbon was found to be 2.52 nm. By applying the size-strain plot method to the X-ray diffraction data, the crystallite size and the crystal strain was determined to be 42.46 nm and 0.000489897, respectively, which indicate a perfect crystallite structure. The field emission scanning electron microscopy image showed the presence of well-developed pores on the surface of the activated carbon. The presence of important functional groups was shown by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum. The adsorption of methyl orange onto the activated carbon reached 100% after 12 min. Kinetic analysis indicated that the adsorption of methyl orange solution by the activated carbon followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic mechanism (R2 > 0.995). Therefore, the results show that the produced activated carbon can be used as a proper adsorbent for dye containing effluents.
Nanoporous carbon structures were synthesized by pyrolysis of grass as carbon precursor. The synthesized carbon has high surface area and pore volume. The carbon products were acid functionalized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, transmission electron microscopy, and Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Acid functionalized nanoporous carbon was explored for use in removal of toxic Cr(VI) ions from aqueous media. An adsorption study was done as a function of initial concentration, pH, contact time, temperature, and interfering ions. The experimental equilibrium data fits well to Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 35.335 mg/g. The results indicated that removal obeys a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and that equilibrium was reached in 10 min. A desorption study was done using NaOH. The results of the present study imply that acid functionalized nanoporous carbon synthesized from grass is an efficient, renewable, cost-effective adsorbent material for removal of hexavalent chromium due to its faster removal rate and reusability.
Activated carbon fiber (ACF) surfaces are modified using an electron beam under different aqueous solutions to improve the NO gas sensitivity of a gas sensor based on ACFs. The oxygen functional group on the ACF surface is changed, resulting in an increase of the number of non-carbonyl (-C-O-C-) groups from 32.5% for pristine ACFs to 39.53% and 41.75% for ACFs treated with hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide solutions, respectively. We discover that the NO gas sensitivity of the gas sensor fabricated using the modified ACFs as an electrode material is increased, although the specific surface area of the ACFs is decreased because of the recovery of their crystal structure. This is attributed to the static electric interaction between NO gas and the non-carbonyl groups introduced onto the ACF surfaces.
In this study, we report a general method for preparation of a one-dimensional (1D) arrangement of Au nanoparticles on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) using biologically programmed peptides as structure-guiding 1D templates. The peptides were designed by the combination of glutamic acid (E), glycine (G), and phenylalanine (F) amino acids; peptides efficiently debundled and exfoliated the SWNTs for stability of the dispersion and guided the growth of the array of Au nanoparticles in a controllable manner. Moreover, we demonstrated the superior ability of 1D nanohybrids as flexible, transparent, and conducting materials. The highly stable dispersion of 1D nanohybrids in aqueous solution enabled the fabrication of flexible, transparent, and conductive nanohybrid films using vacuum filtration, resulting in good optical and electrical properties.
In this study, cellulose nanoplates (CNPs) were fabricated using cellulose nanocrystals obtained from commercial microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). Their pyrolysis behavior and the characteristics of the product carbonaceous materials were investigated. CNPs showed a relatively high char yield when compared with MCC due to sulfate functional groups introduced during the manufacturing process. In addition, pyrolyzed CNPs (CCNPs) showed more effective chemical activation behavior compared with MCC-induced carbonaceous materials. The activated CCNPs exhibited a microporous carbon structure with a high surface area of 1310.6 m2/g and numerous oxygen heteroatoms. The results of this study show the effects of morphology and the surface properties of cellulose-based nanomaterials on pyrolysis and the activation process.
In this work, the effects of maleic anhydride (MA) content on mechanical properties of chopped carbon fibers (CFs)-reinforced MA-grafted-polypropylene (MAPP) matrix composites. A direct oxyfluorination on CF surfaces was applied to increase the interfacial strength between the CFs and MAPP matrix. The mechanical properties of the CFs/MAPP composites are likely to be different in terms of MA content. Surface characteristics were observed by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and single fiber contact angle method. The mechanical properties of the composites were also measured by a critical stress intensity factor (KIC). From the KIC test results, the KIC values were increased to a maximum value of 3.4 MPa with the 0.1 % of MA in the PP, and then decreased with higher MA content.
Physical and electrochemical qualities were analyzed after KOH activation of a direct methanol fuel cell using needle coke as anode supporter. The results of research on support loaded with platinum-ruthenium suggest that an activated KOH needle coke container has the lowest onset potential and the highest degree of catalyst activity among all commercial catalysts. Through an analysis of the CO stripping voltammetry, we found that KOH activated catalysis showed a 21% higher electrochemical active surface area (ECSA), with a value of 31.37 m2/g, than the ECSA of deactivated catalyst (25.82 m2/g). The latter figure was 15% higher than the value of one specific commercial catalyst (TEC86E86).
The reportedly synergistic effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene hybrids have prompted strong demand for an efficient modifier to enhance their dispersion. Here, we investigated the ability of poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) to overcome the van der Waals interaction of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) and graphene by employing a simple wrapping process involving ultrasonication and subsequent centrifugation of PAN/MWCNT/graphene solutions. The physical wrapping of MWCNTs and graphene with PAN was investigated for various PAN concentrations, in an attempt to simplify and improve the polymer-wrapping process. Transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed the wrapping of the MWCNTs and graphene with PAN layers. The interaction between the graphitic structure and the PAN molecules was examined using proton nuclear magnetic resonance, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. The obtained results revealed that the cyano groups of the PAN molecules facilitated adhesion of the PAN molecules to the MWCNTs and graphene for polymer wrapping. The resulting enhanced dispersion of MWCNTs and graphene was verified from zeta potential and shelf-life measurements.