Carbon/carbon composites were developed using PAN based carbon fibres and phenolic resin as matrix in different volume fractions and heat treated to temperatures between 1000℃ to 2500℃. Although both the starting precursors are nongraphitizing hard carbons individually, their composites lead to very interesting properties e.g. x-ray diffractograms show the development of graphitic phase for composites having fibre volume fractions of 30~40%. Consequently the electrical resistivity of such composites reaches a value of 0.8 mΩcm, very close to highly graphitic material. However, it was found that by increasing the fibre volume fraction to 50~60%, the trend is reversed. Optical microscopy of the composites also reveals the development of strong columnar type microstructure at the fibre (matrix interface due to stress graphitization of the matrix. The study forcasts a unique possibility of producing high thermal conductivity carbon/carbon composites starting with carbon fibres in the chopped form only.
Asbestos is being replaced throughout the world among friction materials because of its carcinogenic nature. This has raised an important issue of heat dissipation in the non-asbestos brake pad materials being developed for automobiles etc. It has been found that two of the components i.e. carbon fibres as reinforcement and graphite powder as friction modifier, in the brake pad material, can playa vital role in this direction. The study reports the influence of these modifications on the thermal properties like coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and thermal conductivity along with the mechanical properties of nonasbestos brake pad composite samples developed in the laboratory.
The Pt-Ru/Carbon as an anode catalyst supported on the commercial activated carbon (AC) having high surface area and micropore was characterized for application of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The Pt-Ru/AC anode catalyst used in this experiment showed the performance of 600 mA/cm2 current density at 0.3 V. The borohydride reduction process using NaBH4, denoted as a process A, showed much higher current and power densities than process B prepared by changing the reduction and washing process of process A. The particle sizes are strongly affected by the reduction process than the specific surface area of raw active carbon and the sizes are almost constant when the specific surface area of carbon are over than the 1200 m2/g. Smaller particle size of catalyst and more narrow intercrystalite distance increased the performance of DMFC.
Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) has been proven to be an excellent material for many industrial applications. A systematic study has been carried out of the kinetics of physical as well as chemical activation of phenolic resin chars. Physical activation was carried out using CO2 and chemical activation using KOH as activating agent. There are number of factors which influence the rate of activation. The activation temperature and residence time at HTT varied in the range 550~1000℃ and ½~8 hrs respectively. Kinetic studies show that the rate of chemical activation is 10 times faster than physical activation even at much lower temperature. Above study show that the chemical activation process is suitable to prepare granular activated carbon with very high surface area i.e. 2895 m2/g in short duration of time i.e. 1 to 2 hrs at lower temperature i.e. 750℃ from phenolic resins.
Carbon/carbon composites are ideal candidates for a number of aerospace applications including structural materials for advanced vehicles, leading edges, structures of re-entry and hypersonic vehicles and propulsion systems. One serious defect for such application of the carbon/carbon composites is their poor oxidation resistance in high temperature oxidizing environments. SiC coating was employed to protect the composites from oxidation. It is mechanically and chemically stable under extreme thermal and oxidative environments, provides good adhesion to the substrate, and offers good thermal shock resistance. The SiC layer on the nozzle machined from the carbon/carbon composites was formed by pack-cementation method. Then, erosion characteristic of SiC coated carbon/carbon nozzle was examined by combustion test using a liquid rocket motor. The erosion rates were measured as function of combustion pressure, ratio of oxygen to fuel, combustion time, density of the composites and geometry of reinforced carbon fibre in the composites. The morphology change of the composites after combustion test was investigated using SEM and erosion mechanism also was discussed.
Antibacterial behaviors of PAN-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) containing silver metal were investigated. The effects of surface and pore structures of the ACFs were studied by N2/77 K adsorption and D-R plot as a function of silver loading content. The antibacterial activities were investigated by a dilution test against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus; gram positive) and Klebsiella pnemoniae (K. pnumoniae; gram negative). As experimental results, the ACFs showed some decreases in specific surface areas, micropore volumes, and total pore volume with an increase of silver content. However, the antibacterial activities of the ACFs were strongly increased against S. aureus as well as K. pnumoniae, which could be attributed to the presence of antibacterial metal in the ACFs system.