Carbonaceous thin films were prepared from acetylene and argon gases by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (Plasma CVD) at 873 K. The carbonaceous thin films were characterized by mainly Raman spectroscopy, and their electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge measurements in propylene carbonate (PC) solution. Raman spectra showed that crystallinity of carbonaceous thin films is correlated by the applied RF power. The difference of the applied RF power also affected on the results of cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge measurements. In PC solution, intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ion can occur as well as in the mixed solution of EC and DEC.
Mesoporous activated carbon fiber (ACF) was prepared from phenolic resin containing a small amount (0.1 wt %) of organic nickel complex through carbonization and steam activation. Microporous ACF as reference sample was also prepared from phenolic resin without agent. In both cases of the mesoporous ACFs and the microporous ACFs, the electric double layer capacitance of the nonaqueous electrolyte (0.5 M TEABF4/PC or 1.0 M LiClO4/PC) was not proportional to the BET specific surface area. This is owing to the low permeability of nonaqueous electrolyte or the low mobility of ion in narrow micropores. However, the mesoporous ACF showed higher double layer capacitance than the microporous (normal) ACF. This result suggests that the presence of many mesopores promotes the formation of effective double layer or the transfer of ion in the micropore.
The effect of electrochemical surface treatments in KOH chemical solution on microstructures of carbon blacks was investigated in terms of surface functional values and XRD measurements. And their mechanical interfacial properties of the carbon blacks/rubber composites were studied by the composite tearing energy (GIIIC). It was found that the development of basic-surface functional groups lead to the significant physical changes of carbon blacks, such as, decrease of the interlayer spacing (d002), increase of the crystalline size along c-axis (Lc), and increase of degree of crystalline (χc). This treatment is possibly suitable for carbon blacks to be incorporated in a hydrocarbon rubber matrix, resulting in improving the hardness and tearing energy of the resulting composites.
Under the irradiation of radiofrequency wave, the dipole materials vibrate as microwave phase changes. This causes friction between adjacent molecules and enables an unique characteristics of interior heating of the materials. Using this principle, when harmful material pass through anthracite- bed which play a role as a absorber of radiofrequency wave, the material can be easily decomposed by the microwave energy. To remove benzene vapour and other solvents in the process of industry, we examined decomposition of benzene in this manner. It was found that benzene was decomposed to the methane, ethane, propane and butane, etc. during passing through the carbon-bed under the microwave impingement and distribution of methane in the products reached about 85 vol.%. The decomposition rate of benzene was high within 5 minutes from start of reaction. For a lower concentration of benzene gas, general cases in the field of industry, almost complete decomposition of benzene is believed possible and this method is surely expected to be useful for the prevention of air pollution and improvement of ambient condition.
The initial irreversible capacity, Qi, is one of the parameters to express the material balancing of the cathode to anode. We introduced new terms, which are the initial intercalation Ah efficiency (IIE) and the initial irreversible specific capacity at the surface (Qis), to express precisely the irreversibility of an electrode/electrolyte system. Two terms depended on kinds of active-materials and compositions of the electrode, but did not change with charging state. MPCF had the highest value of IIE and the lowest value of Qis in 1M LiPE6/EC + DEC (1 : 1 volume ratio) electrolyte. IIE value of LiCoO2 electrode was 97-98%, although the preparation condition of the material and the electrolyte were different. Qis value of LiCoO2 was 0~1 mAh/g. MPCF-LiCoO2 cell system had the lowest of the latent capacity. Qis value increased slightly by adding conductive material. IIE and Qis value varied with the electrolyte. By introducing PC to EC+DEC mixed solvent, IIE values were retained, but Qis increased. In case of addition of MP, IIE value increased and Qis value also increased a little.
Composite adsorbents were prepared by mixing water plant sludge with phenolic resin having the ratio of 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 1 : 3 respectively, curing from 100℃ to 170℃ under N2 atmosphere, and then activating with N2 at 700℃. Thermal property, specific surface area and morphology of the composite adsorbents as well as their precursors were measured by TGA, BET and SEM respectively. Removal efficiency of the composite adsorbents to NH4+ and TOC was compared with those of commercial zeolite and activated carbon. The adsorbents presented very promising TOC removal efficiency of 98%, which was identical level to that of commercial activated carbon while they displayed removal efficiency, only 32%, of NH4+. Therefore, this composite adsorbent considered as the alternative material of commercial activated carbon, used as an expensive removal agent of organic substances and THM in water treatment plant and it also suggested a possibility of practical application in other processes.
It is well known that the fabrication process of carbon/carbon composites is very complex. Above all, the carbonization process have major effect on the morphology development of carbon matrix. Carbon/carbon composites of 4-directional fiber preform were fabricated using the coal tar based pitch as a matrix precursor in this study. According to carbonization pressure of 1 bar, 100 bar, 600 bar, and 900 bar, morphological changes of cokes and matrix of composites were discussed. As the carbonization pressure increased to 600 bar, the flow pattern morphology of bulk mesophse was well developed. On the contrary, mosaic pattern morphology was found in case of 900 bar of carbonization pressure. It is confirmed that the carbonization pressure have profound effect on the degree of graphitization and crystal size of carbon matrix. Even in the highly densified carbon/carbon composites, large voids were still found in the matrix pocket region.
The C-type mesophase pitch-based carbon fiber (C-MPCF) was prepared throuch C-type spinnerette and compared the mechanical properties to those of round type mesophase pitch fiber (R-MPCF) and C-type isotropic pitch fiber (C-iPCF). The tensile strength and modulus of C-MPCF were about 18.6% and 35.7% higher than those of R-MPCF. The tensile strength of C-MPCF was 62% higher than that of C-iPCF of the same 8μm thickness because of more linear transverse texture, which could be easily converted to graphitic crystallinity during heat treatment. The torsional rigidity of C-MPCF was 2.37 times higher than that of R-MPCF. The electrical resistivity of C-MPCF was 8μΩ·m. The C-iPCF shows far lower electrical resistivity than R-iPCF as well as the mesophase carbon fiber because of better alignment of texture to the fiber axis.
Lithium intercalated carbon (LIC) are basically employed as an anode for currently commercialized lithium secondary batteries. However, there are still strong interests in modifying carbon surface of active materials of the anode because the amount of irreversible capacity, charge-discharge capacity and high rate capability are largely determined by the surface conditions of the carbon. In this study, the carbonaceous materials were coated with tin oxide and copper by fluidized-bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and their coating effects on electrochemical characteristics were investigated. The electrode which coated with tin oxides gave the higher capacity than that of raw material. Their capacity decreased with the progress of cycling possibly due to severe volume changes. However, the cyclability was improved by coating with copper on the surface of the tin oxides coated carbonaceous materials, which plays an important role as an inactive matrix buffering volume changes. An impedance on passivation film was decreased as tin oxides contents and it resulted in the higher capacity.