The effects of ammonia-treated graphene oxide (GO) on composites based on epoxy resin were investigated. Ammonia solutions of different concentrations (14–28%) were used to modify GO. Nitrogen functional groups were introduced on the GO surfaces without significant structural changes. The ammonia-treated GO-based epoxy composites exhibited interesting changes in their mechanical properties related to the presence of nitrogen functional groups, particularly amine (C-NH2) groups on the GO surfaces. The highest tensile and impact strength values were 42.1 MPa and 12.3 J/m, respectively, which were observed in an epoxy composite prepared with GO treated with a 28% ammonia solution. This improved tensile strength was 2.2 and 1.3 times higher than those of the neat epoxy and the non-treated GO-based epoxy composite, respectively. The amine groups on the GO ensure its participation in the cross-linking reaction of the epoxy resin under amine curing agent condition and enhance its interfacial bonding with the epoxy resin.
The thermoelectric Seebeck and Peltier effects of a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) quantum dot nanodevice are investigated, taking into consideration a certain value of applied tensile strain and induced ac-field with frequency in the terahertz (THz) range. This device is modeled as a SWCNT quantum dot connected to metallic leads. These two metallic leads operate as a source and a drain. In this three-terminal device, the conducting substance is the gate electrode. Another metallic gate is used to govern the electrostatics and the switching of the carbon nanotube channel. The substances at the carbon nanotube quantum dot/ metal contact are controlled by the back gate. Results show that both the Seebeck and Peltier coefficients have random oscillation as a function of gate voltage in the Coulomb blockade regime for all types of SWCNT quantum dots. Also, the values of both the Seebeck and Peltier coefficients are enhanced, mainly due to the induced tensile strain. Results show that the three types of SWCNT quantum dot are good thermoelectric nanodevices for energy harvesting (Seebeck effect) and good coolers for nanoelectronic devices (Peltier effect).
Cobalt was electrodeposited onto chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene/Si/SiO2 substrates, during different time intervals, using an electrolyte solution containing a low concentration of cobalt sulfate. The intention was to investigate the details of the deposition process (and the dissolution process) and the resulting magnetic properties of the Co deposits on graphene. During and after electrodeposition, in-situ magnetic measurements were performed using an (AGFM). These were followed by ex situ morphological analysis of the samples with ΔtDEP 30 and 100 s by atomic force microscopy in the non-contact mode on pristine CVD graphene/SiO2/Si. We demonstrate that it is possible to electrodeposit Co onto graphene, and that in-situ magnetic measurements can also help in understanding details of the deposition process itself. The results show that the Co deposits are ferromagnetic with decreasing coercivity (HC) and demonstrate increasing magnetization on saturation (MSAT) and electric signal proportional to remanence (Mr), as a function of the amount of the electrodeposited Co. It was also found that, after the end of the dissolution process, a certain amount of cobalt remains on the graphene in oxide form (this was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), as suggested by the magnetic measurements. This oxide tends to exhibit a limited asymptotic amount when cycling through the deposition/dissolution process for increasing deposition times, possibly indicating that the oxidation process is similar to the graphene surface chemistry.
A drop weight impact test was conducted in this study to analyze the mechanical and thermal properties caused by the changes in the ratio of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) to ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminations. The ratios of CFRP to EVA were changed from 10:0 (pure CFRP) to 9:1, 8:2, 6:4, and 5:5 by manufacturing five different types of samples, and at the same time, the mechanical/thermal properties were analyzed with thermo-graphic images. As the ratio of the CFRP lamination was increased, in which the energy absorbance is dispersed by the fibers, it was more likely for the brittle failure mode to occur. In the cases of Type 3 through Type 5, in which the role of the EVA sheet is more prominent because it absorbs the impact energy rather than dispersing it, a clear form of puncture failure mode was observed. Based on the above results, it was found that all the observation values decreased as the EVA lamination increased compared with the CFRP lamination. The EVA lamination was thus found to have a very important role in reducing the impact. However, the strain and temperature were inversely propositional.
In this study, Fe-Ni bimetallic catalyst supported on kaolin is prepared by a wet impregnation method. The effects of mass of kaolin support, pre-calcination time, pre-calcination temperature and stirring speed on catalyst yields are examined. Then, the optimal supported Fe-Ni catalyst is utilised to produce multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) method. The catalysts and MWCNTs prepared using the optimal conditions are characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), high-resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM), electron diffraction spectrometer (EDS), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD/EDS patterns of the prepared catalyst confirm the formation of a purely crystalline ternary oxide (NiFe2O4). The statistical analysis of the variance demonstrates that the combined effects of the reaction temperature and acetylene flow rate predominantly influenced the MWCNT yield. The N2 adsorption (BET) and TGA analyses reveal high surface areas and thermally stable MWCNTs. The HRTEM/HRSEM micrographs confirm the formation of tangled MWCNTs with a particle size of less than 62 nm. The XRD patterns of the MWCNTs reveal the formation of a typical graphitized carbon. This study establishes the production of MWCNTs from a bi-metallic catalyst supported on kaolin.
Isotropic pitch-based fibers produced from coal tar pitch with the melt-blowing method were carbonized at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1600oC to investigate their crystalline structure and physical properties as a function of the carbonization temperature. The in-plane crystallite size (La) of the carbonized pitch fiber from X-ray diffraction increased monotonously by increasing the carbonization temperature resulting in a gradual increase in the electrical conductivity from 169 to 3800 S/cm. However, the variation in the d002 spacing and stacking height of the crystallite (Lc) showed that the structural order perpendicular to the graphene planes got worse in carbonization temperatures from 800 to 1200oC probably due to randomization through the process of gas evolution; however, structural ordering eventually occurred at around 1400oC. For the carbonized pitch powder without stabilization, structural ordering perpendicular to the graphene planes occurred at around 800–900oC indicating that oxygen was inserted during the stabilization process. Additionally, the shear stress that occurred during the melt-blowing process might interfere with the crystallization of the CPF.
We report the use of carrot, a new and inexpensive biomaterial source, for preparing high quality carbon dots (CDs) instead of semi-conductive quantum dots for bioimaging application. The as-derived CDs possessing down and up-conversion photoluminescence features were obtained from carrot juice by commonly used hydrothermal treatment. The corresponding physiochemical and optical properties were investigated by electron microscopy, fluorescent spectrometry, and other spectroscopic methods. The surfaces of obtained CDs were highly covered with hydroxyl groups and nitrogen groups without further modification. The quantum yield of as-obtained CDs was as high as 5.16%. The cell viability of HaCaT cells against a purified CD aqueous solution was higher than 85% even at higher concentration (700 μg mL−1) after 24 h incubation. Finally, CD cultured cells exhibited distinguished blue, green, and red colors, respectively, during in vitro imaging when excited by three wavelength lasers under a confocal microscope. Offering excellent optical properties, biocompatibility, low cytotoxicity, and good cellular imaging capability, the carrot juice derived CDs are a promising candidate for biomedical applications.
We have demonstrated the production of thin films containing multilayer graphene-coated copper nanoparticles (MGCNs) by a commercial electrodeposition method. The MGCNs were produced by electrical wire explosion, an easily applied technique for creating hybrid metal nanoparticles. The nanoparticles had average diameters of 10–120 nm and quasi-spherical morphologies. We made a complex-electrodeposited copper thin film (CETF) with a thickness of 4.8 μm by adding 300 ppm MGCNs to the electrolyte solution and performing electrodeposition. We measured the electric properties and performed corrosion testing of the CETF. Raman spectroscopy was used to measure the bonding characteristics and estimate the number of layers in the graphene films. The resistivity of the bare-electrodeposited copper thin film (BETF) was 2.092 × 10–6 Ω·cm, and the resistivity of the CETF after the addition of 300 ppm MGCNs was decreased by 2% to ~2.049 × 10–6 Ω·cm. The corrosion resistance of the BETF was 9.306 Ω, while that of the CETF was increased to 20.04 Ω. Therefore, the CETF with MGCNs can be used in interconnection circuits for printed circuit boards or semiconductor devices on the basis of its low resistivity and high corrosion resistance.
A highly facile and eco-friendly green synthesis of Annona squamosa (custard apple) leaf extract reduced graphene oxide (CRG) nanosheets was achieved by the reduction of graphene oxide (GO). The as-prepared CRG was characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopic techniques. Removal of oxygen containing moieties from the GO was confirmed by UV-Vis, FT-IR and XPS spectroscopic data. The XRD and Raman data further confirmed the formation of the CRG. TEM images showed the sheet structure of the synthesized CRG. These results show that the phytochemicals present in custard apple leaf extract act as excellent reducing agents. The CRG showed good dispersion in water.
The objective of this study is the removal of chromium from tannery wastewater by electrosorption on carbon prepared from lignocellulosic natural residue "peach stones' thermally treated. The followed steps for obtaining coal in chronological order were: cleaning, drying, crushing and finally its carbonization at 900°C. The characterization of the carbon material resulted in properties comparable to those of many coals industrially manufactured. The study of the dynamic adsorption of chromium on the obtained material resulted in a low removal rate (33.7%) without applied potential. The application of negative potentials of -0.7 V and -1.4 increases the adsorption of chromium up to 90% and 96% respectively. Whereas a positive potential of +1.4V allows desorption of the contaminant of 138%.