The atmospheric pressure plasma treatments (Ar/O2 and Ar/N2) of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were carried out to introduce hydrophilic functional groups on carbon surfaces in order to enhance the hydrogen chloride gas (HCl) adsorption. Surface properties of the ACFs were determined by XPS and SEM. N2/77 K adsorption isotherms were investigated by BET and D-R (Dubinin-Radushkevich) plot methods. The HCl removal efficiency was confirmed by HCl detecting tubes (range:1~40 or 40~1000 ppm). As experimental results, it was found that all plasma-treated ACFs showed the decrease in the pore volume, but the HCl removal efficiency showed higher level than that of the untreated ACFs. This result indicated that the plasma treatments led to the conformation of hydrophilic functional groups on the carbon surfaces, resulting in the increase of the interaction between the ACFs and HCl gas.
Effect of silicon infiltration on the bend and tensile strength of 2D cross-ply carbon-carbon composites are studied. It is observed that bend strength higher than tensile strength in both types of composite is due to the different mode of fracture and loading direction. After silicon infiltrations bend and tensile strength suddenly decreases of carbon-carbon composites. This is due to the fact that, after silicon infiltration, silicon in the immediate vicinity of carbon forms the strong bond between carbon and silicon by formation silicon carbide and un-reacted silicon as free silicon. Therefore, these composites consist of three components carbon, silicon carbide and silicon. Due to mismatch between these three components secondary cracks developed and these cracks propagate from 90˚ oriented plies to 0˚ oriented plies by damaging the fibers (i.e., in-situ fiber damages). Hence, secondary cracks and in-situ fiber damages are responsible for degradation of mechanical properties of carbon-carbon composites after silicon infiltration which is revealed by microstructure investigation study by scanning electron microscope.
The mesophase pitch was prepared by adding 1~10 wt% of the borane-pyridine complex (BPC) to decant oil. It was prepared in a reactor held at 450℃ for 2 h in N2 atmosphere. The mesophase pitches were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), melting point apparatus, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized optical microscope. The coke yield, softening point, toluene insoluble, density and content of anisotropy in the mesophase pitches were increased with BPC contents. The XRD profiles did not show any effect of addition of BPC on the formation of mesophase pitch, while the crystallinity of mesophase pitches was increased when the materials were heat treated with boron compound.
MCMB (Mesocarbon microbeads) is a kind of anode material for lithium-ion secondary battery. MCMB charge/discharge cycle stability is one of the important criterion at lithium-ion battery operation. In this study, the cycling stability of a lithium-ion secondary battery has been examined. MCMB was made by the direct solvent extraction method. After the MCMB was carbonized and graphitized, the measurement of charge/discharge capacity and efficiency were carried out. In the result, discharge capacity of MCMB in the initial cycle was above 290.0 mAh/g. After the second cycle, efficiency of charge/discharge MCMB was about 98%. These results were similar to the commercial MCMB product.
Chop molding composites and 2D carbon/carbon composites were manufactured by hot press molding method. Phenol resin of novolac type was used for matrix precursor and PAN-based carbon, PAN-based graphite and pitch-based carbon fiber were used for reinforcement and boron oxide was used for oxidation retardant. All of the composites were treated by 2000℃ and 2400℃ graphitization process, respectively. After graphitization process, amount of a boron residue in carbon/carbon composites is much according to irregularity of used raw materials. Under the presence of boron in carbon/carbon composites, catalytic effect of boron was a little at 2000℃ graphitization temperature. However, it was quite at 2400℃ graphitization.
The synthetic behaviors of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by Fe/MgO catalysts were investigated in 0~90 wt.% range of MgO mixture ratios by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) process. The CNTs were synthesized with 40 minutes of synthetic time, and 923 K of synthetic temperature using 0.1 L/min of ethylene gas and 1.0 L/min of hydrogen gas as synthetic and carrier gas, respectively. As the increase of synthetic temperatures and times, the diameters of CNTs become thicker. The carbon yield showed in a parabolic curve as MgO content increased and the maximum carbon yield was obtained at 30 wt.% of MgO. There were no obvious changes in the diameters of CNTs respect to the change of MgO content. Fe/MgO CNTs showed good crystalinity by High Resolution Transmission Electron microscope (HR-TEM) analysis. The behaviors of Fe/MgO CNTs have a tendency of depending on synthetic time and temperature rather than MgO content.