As a new nanostructure, a graphene is a compound of carbon atoms with a two-dimensional structure that has attracted the attention of many nanoscale researchers due to its novel physical and chemical properties. The presence of all graphene atoms in the surface and its unique electrical properties, as well as the ability to functionalize and combine with another nanomaterial, has introduced graphene as a new and suitable candidate material for gas sensing. Over the years, many researchers have turned their attention to carbon nanomaterial. The unique optical, mechanical, and electronic properties of these nanostructures have led them to use these nanomaterials to develop tiny devices, such as low-consumption sensors. Carbon nanomaterial poses a threat to another nanomaterial in terms of their use in gas sensors. This review article discusses the use of carbon nanoparticles and graphene in gas sensors, examines the nodes in the commercialization pathway of these compounds, and presents the latest achievements. Finally, the perspectives of the challenges and opportunities in the field of sensors based on carbon nanomaterial and graphene are examined.
Nanomaterials (NMs) are gradually becoming pervasive in the modern world, entering every application for improving the quality of life. Multifaceted uses of NMs in curing diseases, biomedical instrumentation, bioimaging, drugs, and gene delivery, display devices, nanosensors, and biomarkers in several fields ranging from agriculture to industries, healthcare, and environment, have been well recognized. Carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs) constitute a major type of NMs with broad-spectrum applications including their uses in agriculture. These are synthesized in large quantities via synthetic and biological approaches. Biological approaches are gaining appreciation and momentum, owing to the advantages associated with them, major being their environment friendly or ‘Green’ nature. This topical review focuses on the preparation of CNMs using natural resources, i.e., using the Green Nanotechnology. The up-to-date compilation presented here includes most of the popular green technological methods of producing the CNMs and their immediate uses as anticancer agents, in bio-labelling, as biosensors, in bio-remediation, in cell imaging, in fluorescent inks, and fluorescent dyes, as plant growth inducing agents, in nano-probes, in light-emitting devices and other applications. It is intended to update the reader with the state-of-the-art knowledge about the green technological methods for synthesizing CNMs, their uses, current trends, challenges, and future outlook on the topic.
The implanted electronic devices require a stable, continuous, and long-lasting energy source to function correctly. These devices are powered by alkaline batteries and lithium ions. When used in implantable or wearable devices, these batteries can pose a threat to human health and the environment. Because of these factors, implantable and wearable devices using enzyme biofuel cells (EBFCs) are receiving a lot of attention. These EBFCs use human physiological fluid to provide longterm control for these devices. Carbon nanomaterials have successfully been demonstrated in enzymatic biofuel cells to improve applications by increasing current and power density; they have the potential to enhance EBFC efficiency. This review summarizes the fundamental process of EBFC compounds based on carbon nanomaterials before delving into the most recent advancements that have been tested and used as implantable and wearable self-power sources.
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers (CFs) and their composites, CF-reinforced plastics, have garnered significant interest as promising structural materials owing to their excellent properties and lightweight. Therefore, various processing technologies for fabricating these advanced materials using thermal energy have been intensively investigated and developed. In most cases, these thermal energy-based processes (heat treatment) are energy and time consuming due to the inefficient energy transfer from the source to materials. Meanwhile, advanced processing technologies that directly transfer energy to materials, such as radiation processing, have been developed and applied in several industrial sectors since the 1960s. Herein, general aspects of radiation processing and several key parameters for electron-beam (e-beam) processing are introduced, followed by a review of our previous studies pertaining to the preparation of low-cost CFs using specific and textile-grade PAN fibers and improvements in the mechanical and thermal properties of CF-reinforced thermoplastics afforded by e-beam irradiation. Radiation processing using e-beam irradiation is anticipated to be a promising method for fabricating advanced carbon materials and their composites.
The development of graphene and graphene-like materials has been a breakthrough in the field of nanotechnology for its exceptional properties. It exhibits extraordinary properties owing to its unique, regular arrangement of carbon atoms in it. However, graphene is usually modified for specific applications, by introducing disorder in the system. Since disorders are ubiquitous during the synthesis of graphene and graphene-like materials, it is best to exploit the defects for tuning its exceptional properties for suitable device applications. Like in any material, the disorder can drastically affect the properties, and hence they are deliberately incorporated into the material. In this review, we discuss topics related to the creation and configuration of disorders in graphene such as corrugations, topological defects, vacancies, adatoms and sp3- defects. The effects of these disorders on the electrical, thermal, chemical and mechanical properties of graphene are analysed subsequently. Finally, we review earlier works on the modulation of structural defects in graphene for specific applications.
We investigated the electronic and mechanical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different tube diameters using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, respectively. The carbon nanotubes’ electronic properties were derived from the index number ( n 1 , n 2 ), lattice vectors, and the rolled graphene sheet orientation. For (6,1) SWCNT, ( n 1-n 2)/3 is non-integer, so the expected characteristic is semiconducting. We have considered (6,1) Chiral SWCNT with different diameters ‘d’ (4.68 Å, 4.90 Å, 5.14 Å, 5.32 Å, 5.53 Å) corresponds to respective bond lengths ‘ ’ (1.32 Å, 1.38 Å, 1.45 Å, 1.50 Å and 1.56 Å) and then analyze the electronic properties from the Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) based on DFT. We have used both the DFT-1/2 and GGA exchange energy correlation approximations for our calculation and compared the results. In both cases, the energy bandgap is decreasing order with the increase in bond lengths. The lowest value of formation energy was obtained at the bond length = 1.45 Å ( d = 5.14 Å). For the mechanical properties, we have calculated Young’s modulus using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. From our calculation, we have found that the (6,1) SWCNT with bond length 1.45 Å ( d = 5.14 Å) has Young’s modulus value of 1.553 TPa.
Abstract Recently, the circular economy aiming at elimination of waste and the continual use of resources has attracted a lot of attentions. In the circular system, the resource recovery uses the recycled wastes as the raw material to manufacture new valuable products. This work focuses on a low-cost process, in which an activated carbon (AC) adsorbent was prepared from waste cation exchange resin by calcination and HNO3 activation hydrothermal method. Surface structure and chemistry of AC were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR and Boehm titration. It was found that the acid treatment could increase the number of pores and the content of oxygen-containing functional groups on AC surface. In the adsorption experiment, Methylene blue (MB) was used to assess the adsorption capacity of AC. Experimental results showed that the highest efficiency of MB removal was achieved by AC with modification of 4M HNO3, showing the acidification effect on the adsorption capacity of AC. Adsorption isotherms of Langmuir and Freundlich were employed to fit the experimental data. It was shown that MB adsorption on AC is more consistent with Langmuir model that assumes a homogeneous adsorption. In the adsorption kinetic analysis, the adsorption was found to follow the pseudo-second-order model, indicating that adsorption of MB on acidified AC is dominated by chemical adsorption. The study revealed that the waste ion-exchange resin is a proper precursor of carbon adsorbent for MB dye. This low-cost method would specifically reduce the environmental cost of waste disposal.
The mechanosynthesis route is a physical top–down strategy to produce different nanomaterials. Here, we report the formation of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) through this route using carbon bars recovered from discarded alkaline batteries as raw material. The mechanosynthesis time (milling time) is shown to have an influence on different features of the GNRs such as their width and edges features. TEM revealed the presence of GNRs with widths of 15.26, 8.8, and 23.55 nm for the milling times of 6, 12, and 18 h, respectively. Additionally, the carbon bars evolved from poorly shaped GNRs for the shortest milling time (6 h) to well-shaped GNRs of oriented sheets forming for the longest milling time. Besides GNRs, graphene sheets (GNS) of different sizes were also observed. The Raman analysis of the 2D bands identified the GNS signal and confirmed the GNRs nature. ID/IG values of 0.21, 0.32, and 0.40 revealed the degree of disorder for each sample. The in-plane sp2 crystallite sizes ( La) of graphite decreased to 91, 60, and 48 nm with increasing peeling time. The RBLM band at 288 cm− 1 confirmed the formation of the GNRs. Mechanosynthesis is a complex process and the formation of the GNRs is discussed in terms of a mechanical exfoliation, formation of graphene sheets and its fragmentation to reach GNR-like shapes. It is shown that the synthesis of GNRs through the mechanosynthesis route, besides the use of recycled materials, is an alternative for obtaining self-sustaining materials.
Heavy metal pollution has a harmful impact on human health and is regarded as a vital problem. Preparation of a novel, low cost bio-sorbent for heavy metal sorption is the main target of this research. Non-living Chlorella Vulgaris Alga/Date pit activated carbon composite (1:1), (CV/AC), is a novel bio-sorbent prepared by the wet-chemical method for sorption of Pb (II) and Sr (II) from aqueous media. The optimum pH for sorption reaction is 5 and the equilibrium time is achieved within 1 h. The sorption efficiencies are 90.5% for Pb(II) and 95.7% for Sr(II) with initial concentration Co 10 mg L– 1 at 298 K. The monolayer sorption capacities of CV/AC composite at 298 K and pH = 5 were 6.34 ± 0.059, 5.97 ± 0.22 mg g– 1. The saturation capacities were 98.5 and 125 mg g– 1 for Pb (II) and Sr (II), respectively after 10 days. The sorption process is a spontaneous and endothermic reaction. It follows a pseudo-2nd-order mechanism. The results are suggestive of the need to adopt CV/AC composite as a potential bio-sorbent of Pb (II) and Sr (II) for waste water treatment.
By polymerizing acrylonitrile in the presence of ammonium persulfate as an initiator and Pterocladia capillacea-activated carbon (P-AC) as a filler, a composite material polyacrylonitrile/Pterocladia capillacea-activated carbon (PAN/P- AC) was developed. By reacting hydroxylamine with the composite's nitrile groups, the prepared composite was functionalized by amidoximation. FTIR spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis were all applied to thoroughly characterize the fabricated adsorbent. For the treatment of Cr(VI) ions from synthetic solutions, the adsorption properties of amidoximated polyacrylonitrile/Pterocladia capillacea-activated carbon (PAO/P-AC) were investigated. The pH effect, uptake kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and thermodynamics studies were used to characterize adsorption properties. As a kinetic model analysis, the data confirmed that the pseudo-second-order rate equation matched well the adsorption process. With coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.9998, the Tempkin isotherm model had the lowest error, suggesting that it is the best fitted model to describe this adsorption mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that Cr(VI) adsorption was endothermic.
One-step hydrothermal reduction method was used to prepare three-dimensional carbon fiber brush-based graphene–platinum (CFB/Pt–G) composites to improve the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction activity of cathode materials for seawater oxygen-dissolved battery. Characterization results show that the reduced graphene oxide of as-prepared graphene–platinum composite displays the few-layer folded structure. In addition, Pt nanoparticles with the polycrystalline structure dispplay a preferential growth along the crystal plane of (111) and are mainly distributed around the defect cavities of folded graphene. Electrochemical results show that the diffusion-limited current density of CFB/Pt–G composite tested with 1600 rpm/min in 3.5% NaCl solution reaches 5 mA/cm2, while that of CFB/G is only 2.64 mA/cm2. Battery discharge results show that the maximum volume power density of CFB/Pt–G–Mg battery with a stable open voltage of 1.73 V is 81 times as much as the commercial seawater battery SWB1200.
Silver/graphene core/shell nanocomposites were synthesized through a one-step electric explosion of wire method using only silver wires and ethanol. The morphology of the graphene shell structures can be easily formed by alternating the solvent from deionized water to ethanol. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the size of the prepared silver/graphene core/ shell nanocomposites was in the 10–110 nm range. The Raman spectra showed the formation of graphene shells on silver. A possible formation mechanism of the silver/graphene core/shell nanocomposites is proposed in this study. The crystallinity of the nanoparticles was investigated via X-ray diffraction. The graphene on the surfaces of the nanocomposites containing functional groups was analyzed through Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. Zeta potential and dynamic light scattering analyses were performed to determine the dispersion characteristics of the nanocomposites when redispersed in other solvents.
The reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has attracted more and more attention in recent years. How to choose a suitable reduction method to prepare rGO is a critical problem in the preparation of graphene composites. In this work, the differences of rGO reduced by thermal, microwave, Ultraviolet (UV) and reducing agent were studied. The reduction degree and functional groups of rGO were compared by SEM, XPS, Raman, FTIR and TGA. Thermal can remove most of the oxygen-containing groups of graphene oxide (GO) and the thermal reduction is the most effective reduction method. UV light can directly act on the unstable oxygen-containing groups, and its reduction efficiency is second only to thermal reduction. The efficiency of chemical reduction is not as good as that of UV reduction, because the reducing agent only act on the surface of GO. Microwave reduction is a mild thermal reduction with the lowest efficiency, but the residual oxygen-containing groups increase the hydrophilicity of rGO. To sum up, this work studies that rGO prepared by different reduction methods has different characteristics, which provides a reference for selecting appropriate reduction methods to prepare graphene composites with better properties.
Abstract In this study, micro-defects on/in carbon fibers were modified by irradiation with an electron beam, which improved the mechanical strength of single carbon fibers. The electron beam irradiation was 10 kGy (using a 1.5 MeV accelerator in the air). The total doses ranged from 100 to 500 kGy. The tensile strength of the single carbon fiber was measured using a universal testing machine. The micro-defects on the fiber surface were observed with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and those in the fiber were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. In conclusion, the electron beam treatment produced changes in the micro-defects on/in the carbon fibers, resulting in up to 14% improvement in the tensile strength of single carbon fiber.
Herein, a facile bottom–up approach for producing nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) was carried out by the hydrothermal treatment of microcrystalline cellulose, in the presence of different nitrogen sources (blank/urea/ammonia water/ethanediamine(EDA)/Hexamethylenetetramine). The result showed that the fluorescence intensity and quantum yields (QYs) of N-CQDs with different nitrogen sources are all higher than that without nitrogen source. Compared with the other three nitrogen sources, N-CQDs prepared by EDA not only have the highest fluorescence intensity but also the largest QYs of 51.39%. Therefore, EDA was chosen as the nitrogen source to prepare N-CQDs. The obtained N-CQDs are uniform spherical particles with a diameter of 2.76 nm. The N-CQDs also exhibit excitation-dependent and long-wave emission properties. The emission range of N-CQDs is 470–540 nm. Moreover, N-CQDs as fluorescent agents successfully acted on purple LEDs (λem = 365 nm) to achieve white LEDs light emission. At the same time, a fluorescent thin layer chromatography plate was successfully prepared using N-CQDs, silica gel G and Sodium carboxymethylcellulose as raw materials. The separation trajectory of mixed sample of Sudan red III and kerosene on the fluorescent TLC plate is obviously clearer than that of the TLC plate.
Cerium oxide decorated on nickel hydroxide anchored on reduced graphene oxide (Ce-Ni(OH)2/rGO) composite with hexagonal structures were synthesized by facile hydrothermal method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), highresolution transmission electron microscopy with selected area diffraction (HRTEM-SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer– Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analysis and electrochemical technology were used to characterize the composite. Due to its unique two-dimensional structures and synergistic effect among Ce2O3, Ni(OH)2 and rGO components indicated twodimensional hexagonal nano Ce-Ni(OH)2/rGO composite is promising electrode material for improved electrochemical H2O2 sensing application. From 50 to 800 μM, the H2O2 concentration was linearly proportional to the oxidation current, with a lower detection of limit of 10.5 μM (S/N = 3). The sensor has a higher sensitivity of 0.625 μA μM−1 cm− 2. In addition, the sensor demonstrated high selectivity, repeatability and stability. These findings proved the viability of the synthetic method and the potential of the composites as a H2O2 sensing option.
The bituminous coal was extracted with different industrial solvents like coal tar (CT), heavy cycle oil (HCO) and with their blends to determine the influence of solvent type on the extract yield, composition, thermal behavior, properties such as solubility to toluene and quinoline. The extracts obtained at 380 °C represented pitch-like solid matter with the softening points of 72–127 °C depending on the solvent used. They were characterized using the elemental and group analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, TG-DTG thermogravimetry and liquid chromatography for benzo(a)pyrene concentration. Also, maltene fractions of some extracts were studied by GC–MS. The results showed coal dissolution and the properties of the extracts to differ greatly depending on the solvent used. Coal tar was more favorable solvent for coal dissolution than HCO. Good correlation between the extract aromaticity and the content of the toluene insolubles was observed. The maltene fractions of the extracts obtained with CT and CT blended with HCO consisted mainly of polycyclic aromatics, and that obtained with the HCO contained also large amount of aliphatic compounds. It was found that the amount of the carcinogenic benzo(a) pyrene (BaP) in the toluene soluble fractions of the extracts were different depending on the solvents used for extraction. The remarkable result was that the BaP concentrations in all extracts were much lower than in the solvents used.
Carbon fiber and its composites are increasingly used in many fields including defence, military, and allied industries. Also, surface quality is given due importance, as mating parts are used in machineries for their functioning. In this work, the turning process is considered for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites by varying three important cutting variables: cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. Correspondingly, the surface roughness is measured after the completion of turning operation. As well, a prediction model is created using different fuzzy logic membership function and Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm (LMA) in artificial intelligence. Later, the surface roughness values from the developed models are compared against the experimental values for its correlation and effectiveness in using different membership functions of fuzzy logic and ANN. Thus, the experimental results are analyzed using the effect graphs and it is presented in detail.
We report the first observation of Fano resonance in the Y-shaped cavity (YC), demonstrate that the sensitivity of the sensor is as high as 1160 nm/RIU, much higher than that of the aforementioned sensors, and observe that the quality factor and sensitivity of Fano resonance can be adjusted by changing the geometry of the sensor or adding silver nanoparticles. Traditional sucrose detection methods either waste resources or pollute the environment. This work shows that the sensor can be used to detect the concentration of sucrose. In addition, we found that the concentration of sucrose has a linear relationship with its corresponding refractive index. The sensor we designed can easily and rapidly calculate the concentration of a sucrose solution based on the Fano resonance wavelength shift, which is an important first step towards detecting the refractive index of the solution and identify the composition.
Preparation of advanced functional materials from agricultural waste by eco-friendly processing route is inevitable for sustainable development. This work demonstrates the development of carbon/silica (C/SiO2) and carbon/silicon carbide (C/ SiC) composite foam monoliths of low thermal conductivity, high EMI shielding performance and reasonable compressive strength from rice husk. The C/SiO2 and C/SiC composite foams are obtained by carbonization and subsequent carbothermal reduction, respectively, of rice husk–sucrose composites consolidated by filter-pressing rice husk powder dispersed in sucrose solutions of various concentrations (300–600 g L− 1). The amorphous nature of silica in C/SiO2 and the presence of β-SiC in C/SiC are evidenced from XRD and TEM analysis. The compressive strength and thermal conductivity are depending on the foam density which is tailored by sucrose solution concentration. The compressive strength in the ranges of 0.32–1.67 and 0.19–1.19 MPa are observed for C/SiO2 and C/SiC foams, respectively, with density in the ranges of 0.26–0.37 and 0.18–0.29 g cm− 3. The C/SiO2 and C/SiC exhibited thermal conductivity in the ranges of 0.150–0.205 W m− 1 K− 1 and 0.165–0.431 W m− 1 K− 1, respectively. The C/SiO2 and C/SiC composite foams show absorption dominated EMI shielding effectiveness in the ranges of 18–38.5 dB and 20–43.7 dB, respectively. The inherent pore channels and corrugated surface structure in rice husk, electrically conducting carbon and dielectric SiO2 and SiC contribute to the total EMI shielding.