Carbon/Carbon composite was been manufactured by the technology of warmer-molding process of clutter chopped carbon fiber, using phenolic resin as an adhesive. The degree of graphitization, the microstructure and the friction properties were studied. The results show that the clutter chopped carbon fiber fully scatter in the Carbon/Carbon composite and the degree of graphitization of phenolic resin can reach up to 86.2%, this matrix carbon can form the continuous and stable graphitic thin film on the friction surface during braking process so that the composite has fine friction properties and low wear rate.
Thin films of carbon-nano materials (CNMs) of different morphology have been successfully deposited on ceramic substrate by CVD at temperatures 800℃, 850℃ and 900℃ using plant based oils in the presence of transition metal catalysts (Ni, Co and Ni/Co alloys). Based on the return and insertion loss, microwave absorption properties of thin film of nanocarbon material are measured using passive micro-Strip line components. The result indicates that amongst CNMs synthesized from oil of natural precursors (mustered oil - Brassica napus, Karanja oil - Pongamia glabra, Cotton oil - Gossipium hirsuta and Neem oil - Azadirachta indica) carbon nano fibers obtained from neem's seed oil showed better microwave absorption (~20dB) in the range of 8.0 GHz to 17.90 GHz.
Treatment of water hyacinth with sulphuric acid produces carbonaceous materials that have been used to remove Cu(II) and Cd (II) ions from aqueous solutions. Untreated water hyacinth was also used for the subject of comparison. The textural properties of the carbonaceous materials were determined from nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. The optimum pH for the sorption of Cu (II) and Cd (II) ions on the investigated sorbents was determined. Dynamic adsorption measurements have been taken at 298 K whereas equilibrium measurements were carried out at 298, 313 and 323 K. The adsorption of nitrogen at 77 K on the untreated sample was too low and the surface areas of the treated samples 2, 3 and 4 were found between 70-208 m2/g. The total pore volumes of these samples which were determined for the carbonaceous materials investigated were found to be 0.076-0.140 ml/g. The kinetic adsorption data of Cu (II) and Cd(II) were applicable to both pseudo - first and pseudo-second order but fit more the latter order. The equilibrium adsorption data were found to fit Freundlich and Langmiur equations. The values of DG, DH and DS are all negative indicating the feasibility and the spontaneous nature of the sorption of Cu (II) and Cd (II) ions by the sorbents investigated.
Carbon-coated TiO2 was prepared by CCl4 solvent mixing method with the different heat treated temperatures (HTTs). Since the carbon layers derived from pitch on the TiO2 particles were porous, the carbon-coated TiO2 sample series showed a good adsorptivity. The values of BET surface areas measured were shown independently on the HTTs. The surface states by SEM present to the characterization of porous texture on the carbon-coated TiO2 sample and carbon distributions on the surfaces. From XRD data, PT700 and PT750 were shown the X-ray diffraction patterns of the anatase TiO2, but PT800 and PT850 were kept anatase-type structure even after heating at 800℃, though small amount of the rutile-type structure appears. The results of EDX microanalyses were observed for each sample show the spectra corresponding to almost all samples similar to C, O and Ti elements with an increase of HTTs. Finally, the excellent photoactivity of carbon-coated TiO2 (especially, PT700 and PT750) could be attributed to the homogeneous coated carbon on the external surface and the structural anatase phase.
Multi-walled carbon nanotube-poly methyl methacrylate (MWNT/PMMA) nanocomposite has been prepared by in situ polymerization of MMA dispersed with MWNTs. The MWNTs were functionalized by nitric acid and sulfuric acid treatment, and this was confirmed by FTIR spectrometer. The solution mixture of MWNTs and MMA was partially polymerized at 80℃, followed by the addition of AIBN and polymerization at 50℃. The MWNT-PMMA composite was prepared by casting the pre-polymer on the glass plate, and the optical properties have been studied using UV-vis spectrometer. The acid treated MWNTs were well dispersed in MMA with fairly good dispersion stability, while flocculation and sedimentation was observed from raw MWNTs in MMA.
Porous carbon materials were prepared with a thermal treatment of coal tar pitch at 550 in the Ar gas. Growth, merger, and distribution of pore were characterized with scanning electron microscopy as variation ascending temperature gradient and chamber pressure. After graphitizing at the 2600 (1 hr.), walls and connecting parts between pores were investigated with X-ray diffraction patterns. Wall thickness and pore size decreases as increasing ascending temperature gradient, and pore size becomes homogeneous. Graphite quality and thermal conductivity become higher due to the enhanced orientation of walls and connecting parts between pores.
In this study, in order to easily provide functional groups on the surface of carbon nanotubes, dual structural multiwalled carbon nanotubes which have crystalline graphite and turbostratic carbon wall were synthesized by modified vertical thermal decomposition method. Synthesized dual structural MWCNTs were characterized by FE-SEM, TGA, HR-TEM, Raman spectroscopy and BET specific surface area analyzer. The average innermost and outermost diameters of the synthesized nanotubes were around 45 and 75 nm, respectively. The large empty inner space and the presence of graphitic carbons on the surface may open potential applications for gas storage and collection of hazardous materials.